###
Combining
argument values

Let
us have a closer look at the Csound score of sound-object prototype 'c'.

t
0 120

i2
0 0.2500 9.00 0 0 90 90 ; C5

i2
0.2500 0.2500 9.02 0 0 62 62 ; D5

i2
0.500 0.2500 9.04 0 0 90 90 ; E5

i2
0.7500 0.2500 9.05 0 0 90 90; F5

e

The
last two arguments represent volume. Let p0 be the value in a particular place
of a score line. (For instance, p0 = 62 on the second event.) If the volume
is not explicitly controlled, then p0 is copied to the output score. However,
if a "_volume(x)" instruction precedes the sound-object, the output value p1 is
calculated as follows:

p1
= p0 * (x / default)

where
'default' is the default volume, i.e. 90 in BP2.

For
other controls such as pitchbend, modulation, channel pressure and panoramic, a
different formula is used:

p1
= p0 + x - default

where
'default' takes the following values:

• 8191.5
for pitchbend

• 0
for channel pressure and modulation

• 64
for panoramic

These
calculations are performed in the MIDI parameter range. If the parameter is
mapped to a different range in the Csound domain, p0 is first converted to the
MIDI range (using the reverse mapping), the formula is applied, and then the
result is mapped back to the Csound range.