11. Programmed grammars

When a generative grammar is used to derive a string, rule order is intrinsically predetermined by the availability of variables in the string under derivation. This process is generally non-deterministic because there may be several candidate rules. The idea of a programmed grammar, as suggested by Laske (1973a:365), is to impose an extrinsic ordering of rules reflecting a certain manner in which the generation process is envisaged by the composer. Alternate methods involve production procedures (see reference manual §8.1).