Au cœur des rythmes indiens

Entretien avec James Kippen
English ver­sion

Par Antoine Bourgeau 

James Kippen est un des spé­cial­istes incon­tourn­ables de la musique hin­dous­tanie. Sa ren­con­tre en 1981 avec Afaq Hussain, alors doyen d’une des grandes lignées de joueur de tablā, est le point de départ d’importantes recherch­es sur cet instru­ment et sur les rythmes indi­ens. Il a occupé de 1990 à 2019 la chaire d’ethnomusicologie de la Faculty of Music de l’Université de Toronto (Canada). Formé à l’école de John Blacking et de John Baily, il acquiert par­al­lèle­ment au cours de ses recherch­es la maîtrise de cer­taines langues indo-persanes. Cette habil­ité lui per­met l’analyse de pre­mière main de nom­breuses sources (traités de musique, man­u­scrits de musi­ciens, généalo­gies, icono­gra­phies…) et d’appréhender les dif­férents con­textes socio-culturels indi­ens et leurs muta­tions depuis le XVIIIe siè­cle (cours indo-persanes, empire colo­nial bri­tan­nique, mon­tée du nation­al­isme, post-colonialisme).  Son tra­vail (voir la liste de ses pub­li­ca­tions en fin d’entretien) s’impose comme une con­tri­bu­tion majeure à la com­préhen­sion des pra­tiques rel­a­tives au rythme et au mètre en Inde. J’ai com­mencé à cor­re­spon­dre avec James Kippen lors de mes pro­pres recherch­es sur le tablā à la fin des années 1990. Toujours prompt à partager ses con­nais­sances et son expéri­ence avec ent­hou­si­asme, il me don­na de nom­breux con­seils et encour­age­ments et ce fût un grand hon­neur de le compter par­mi les mem­bres de mon jury de thèse lors de ma sou­te­nance en 2004. C’est avec la même envie de trans­met­tre qu’il a répon­du favor­able­ment à ma propo­si­tion d’entretien. Réalisé à dis­tance entre juil­let et décem­bre 2020, cet échange, à l’origine en anglais, relate près de quar­ante années de recherch­es ethnomusicologiques.

Traduction : Olivia Levingston et Antoine Bourgeau – Octobre 2021.

➡ Source = doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.26071.80804
➡ English ver­sion = doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.12650.03522
or https://bolprocessor.org/kippen-interview/

La voie de l’Inde et du tablā

Comment en es-tu venu à t’intéresser aux musiques de l’Inde et au tablā en particulier ?

J’ai gran­di à Londres, et déjà enfant j’é­tais fasciné par les dif­férentes langues et cul­tures qui étaient intro­duites pro­gres­sive­ment en Grande-Bretagne par les immi­grants. J’étais par­ti­c­ulière­ment séduit par les petites épiceries regorgeant de pro­duits exo­tiques et par les restau­rants indi­ens qui dégageaient des arômes épicés alléchants. Mon père me par­lait sou­vent de ses aven­tures pen­dant les sept années qu’il avait passées en Inde en tant que jeune sol­dat, et j’ai donc dévelop­pé une image très attrayante, bien qu’orientaliste, du sous-continent indi­en. Pendant ma licence de musique à l’Université de York (1975-78), mon ami et cama­rade Francis Silkstone m’a fait con­naître le sitār. J’ai égale­ment eu la chance de suiv­re un cours inten­sif de musique hin­dous­tanie avec le con­férenci­er Neil Sorrell, qui avait étudié la sāraṅgī avec le renom­mé Ram Narayan. La lit­téra­ture disponible à cette époque était rel­a­tive­ment rare, mais deux textes en par­ti­c­uli­er étaient tout de même très influ­ents : « Tabla in Perspective » de Rebecca Stewart (UCLA, 1974), qui a nour­ri en moi un intérêt musi­cologique pour les var­iétés et les com­plex­ités du rythme et le jeu des per­cus­sions et « The Cultural Structure and Social Organization of Musicians in India : the Perspective from Delhi » de Daniel Neuman (Université de l’Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 1974), un aperçu socio-anthropologique du monde des musi­ciens tra­di­tion­nels et hérédi­taires indi­ens et de leurs points de vue.

 J’ai donc com­mencé à appren­dre le tablā à par­tir des dis­ques 33 tours et des livrets de Robert Gottlieb appelés « 42 Lessons for Tabla », et après quelques mois, j’avais appris suff­isam­ment de tech­niques de base pour accom­pa­g­n­er F. Silkstone lors d’un réc­i­tal. J’ai ensuite été l’élève de Manikrao Popatkar, un excel­lent joueur de tablā pro­fes­sion­nel qui venait d’immigrer en Grande-Bretagne. J’étais « accro » ! De plus, la pen­sée que je pour­rais entr­er dans ce monde socio-musical du tablā en Inde en qual­ité de participant-observateur m’a motivée à chercher des pro­grammes d’é­tudes supérieures où je pour­rais dévelop­per mes con­nais­sances et com­pé­tences tout en com­bi­nant les approches musi­cologiques et anthro­pologiques de R. Stewart et D. Neuman. Sur les con­seils de N. Sorrell, j’ai donc écrit à John Blacking au sujet de la pos­si­bil­ité d’é­tudi­er à l’Université Queen’s de Belfast, et John a été très encour­ageant, en m’of­frant une entrée directe au pro­gramme de doc­tor­at. Il a égale­ment souligné que son col­lègue John Baily avait récem­ment écrit un texte : « Krishna Govinda’s Rudiments of Tabla Playing ». J’avais trou­vé le pro­gramme d’é­tudes supérieures idéal et des guides parfaits.

Approches méthodologiques

« How Musical Is Man » de J. Blacking est un texte fon­da­men­tal paru en 1973, à contre-courant de la pen­sée de l’époque, refu­sant les fron­tières entre musi­colo­gie et eth­no­mu­si­colo­gie ain­si que les oppo­si­tions stériles entre les tra­di­tions musi­cales. J. Blacking avance égale­ment l’idée essen­tielle que la musique, même si ce mot n’existe pas partout, est présente à tra­vers toutes les cul­tures humaines, en ce qu’elle résulte du « son humaine­ment organ­isé ». Sais-tu s’il con­nais­sait les pro­pos d’E. Varèse ? Voulant lui aus­si se démar­quer de la sig­ni­fi­ca­tion occi­den­tale du con­cept de « musique », bien que pour d’autres raisons, il avait avancé en 1941 l’expression de « son organisé ».

Je ne me sou­viens pas que J. Blacking ait men­tion­né Varèse ou ses réflex­ions sur la nature de la musique. John était par con­tre un excel­lent musi­cien et pianiste qui avait sans doute ren­con­tré et étudié beau­coup de musique d’art occi­den­tal, et il est donc pos­si­ble qu’il ait con­nu la déf­i­ni­tion de Varèse. Cependant, alors que la philoso­phie de Varèse est née de la con­vic­tion que les machines et les tech­nolo­gies seraient capa­bles d’or­gan­is­er le son, J. Blacking a voulu porter l’attention sur la musique comme fait social : une activ­ité où la mul­ti­tude des façons dont les êtres humains pro­duisent leurs sons, à la fois comme inter­prètes et surtout comme audi­teurs, per­me­t­trait de révéler beau­coup de choses sur leur struc­ture sociale.

En quoi tes études uni­ver­si­taires ont-elles ori­en­té tes recherches ?

J’ai eu la chance d’avoir non pas un mais deux men­tors : J. Blacking et J. Baily, tous deux très dif­férents. J. Blacking regorgeait d’idées, grandes et inspi­rantes, qui ont défié et révo­lu­tion­né la façon dont on pense la musique et la société, tan­dis que J. Baily a mis l’ac­cent sur une approche plus méthodique et empirique fondée sur la per­for­mance musi­cale et sur la ges­tion scrupuleuse de l’ac­qui­si­tion et la doc­u­men­ta­tion des données.

Il ne faut pas oubli­er que j’é­tais jeune et inex­péri­men­té lorsque j’ai entre­pris ce tra­vail de ter­rain, et donc l’ex­em­ple de J. Baily, axé sur la musique et la col­lecte de don­nées, m’a servi de guide pra­tique dans ma vie quo­ti­di­enne pen­dant mes années en Inde. Et lorsque j’avais en ma pos­ses­sion un énorme cor­pus de don­nées, j’ai pu pren­dre du recul et, inspiré par J. Blacking, j’ai pu iden­ti­fi­er cer­tains des grands mod­èles que ces don­nées met­taient en lumière. J’ai donc été frap­pé par le réc­it cohérent du déclin cul­turel lié à la nos­tal­gie d’un passé glo­rieux et artis­tique­ment abon­dant, et la tra­di­tion musi­cale du tablā de Lucknow était l’un des derniers liens vivants avec ce monde per­du. Cela est devenu l’un des thèmes clés de ma thèse de doc­tor­at et de cer­tains des autres travaux qui ont suivi. Quant à ma car­rière d’en­seignant, j’ai essayé au fil des ans de com­bin­er les meilleures qual­ités de mes deux maîtres, tout en pro­mou­vant tou­jours l’idée que, dans les recherch­es por­tant sur la musique et la vie musi­cale, la théorie devrait naître à par­tir de don­nées solides et ne jamais ignor­er le dia­logue avec la réal­ité ethno­graphique afin de préserv­er ain­si sa valeur heuristique.

Dans « Working with the Masters » (2008), tu décris avec détails et fran­chise (ce qui est assez rare dans la pro­fes­sion !…) ton expéri­ence de ter­rain dans les années 1980 avec Afaq Hussain. Cette expéri­ence, et le réc­it que tu en fais, appa­rais­sent comme un mod­èle pour toute recherche en eth­nolo­gie et en eth­no­mu­si­colo­gie avec la par­tic­u­lar­ité de l’apprentissage musi­cal. Tu rends compte ain­si des phas­es d’approche, de ren­con­tre, de test et, enfin (et heureuse­ment dans ton cas) d’acceptation au sein de l’environnement étudié et de la con­fi­ance accordée per­me­t­tant de déploy­er pleine­ment ses inten­tions de recherche et d’apprentissage musi­cal. Tu abor­des aus­si les réflex­ions éthiques et déon­tologiques indis­pens­ables au chercheur : rela­tion aux autres, con­flits de loy­auté résul­tant des pos­si­bles dis­so­nances entre le rap­port à l’informateur et les objec­tifs ethno­graphique, respon­s­abil­ités vis à vis du savoir récolté et place du chercheur-musicien dans la réal­ité musi­cale de la tra­di­tion étudiée. Au-delà des par­tic­u­lar­ités du con­texte musi­cal, y a-t-il des spé­ci­ficités indi­ennes que les chercheurs occi­den­taux doivent avoir en tête pour entre­pren­dre (et espér­er réus­sir) une étude eth­nologique en Inde ?

La société sud-asiatique a énor­mé­ment changé au cours des 40 années qui se sont écoulées, c’est une évi­dence, et ce depuis que j’ai com­mencé à men­er des recherch­es ethno­graphiques. Mais cer­tains principes, ceux qui devraient guider le proces­sus d’en­quête,  demeurent inébran­lables. C’est le cas du pro­fond respect pour la dimen­sion de l’an­ci­en­neté, qu’elle soit sociale ou cul­turelle. Naturellement, l’ac­cès à une com­mu­nauté est la clef de voute, et il n’y a pas de meilleur « gate­keep­er » ou « spon­sor » (pour utilis­er les ter­mes anthro­pologiques) qu’une fig­ure d’au­torité au sein de la sous-culture que l’on étudie, puisque la per­mis­sion que l’on reçoit se réper­cute sur la hiérar­chie sociale et famil­iale. Le dan­ger, dans une société forte­ment patri­ar­cale comme celle de l’Inde, est que l’on se retrou­ve avec une vision hiérar­chique descen­dante de la vie musi­cale. Si j’avais l’oc­ca­sion de repren­dre mes recherch­es dans ce domaine, j’ac­corderais une plus grande atten­tion à ceux qui se trou­vent à dif­férents niveaux de cette hiérar­chie, en par­ti­c­uli­er aux femmes et à la musi­cal­ité quo­ti­di­enne de la vie dans la sphère domes­tique. En se con­cen­trant unique­ment sur les aspects les plus raf­finés de la pro­duc­tion cul­turelle, on peut pass­er à côté de ce qui a de la valeur dans la for­ma­tion des idées, de l’esthé­tique et des mécan­ismes de sou­tien néces­saires à la survie et à l’é­panouisse­ment d’une tra­di­tion artistique.

 Sur une note plus prag­ma­tique (et qui con­cerne plus sou­vent il me sem­ble les aspects relat­ifs au tra­vail sur le ter­rain), j’ai trou­vé que les entre­tiens formels enreg­istrés étaient rarement très fructueux parce qu’ils étaient ressen­tis comme intim­i­dants et étaient accom­pa­g­nés d’at­tentes élevées. En out­re, une sen­si­bil­ité accrue aux ram­i­fi­ca­tions poli­tiques – micro et macro – nous engageant à par­ler selon nos con­vic­tions, représen­tait sou­vent un obsta­cle à la col­lecte d’in­for­ma­tions. En vérité, offi­cieuse­ment et dans des cir­con­stances déten­dues, moins je demandais et plus j’é­coutais, plus l’in­for­ma­tion que je rece­vais était utile et intéres­sante. La mise en garde est que pour fonc­tion­ner de cette manière, il faut dévelop­per un niveau de patience que la plu­part des Occidentaux auraient du mal à accepter.

Fig. 1 : Séance d’enregistrement d’Afaq Hussain chez James Kippen, Lucknow, 1982,  pho­to de James Kippen

Tu adoptes dans les années 1980 l’« approche dialec­tique » enseignée par J. Blacking en y asso­ciant l’informatique et un pro­gramme d’IA. Le but était d’analyser les fonde­ments du jeu impro­visé des joueurs de tablā. Peux-tu revenir sur la genèse et l’évolution de cette approche ?

J. Blacking était par­ti­c­ulière­ment intéressé par le tra­vail de Noam Chomsky sur les gram­maires trans­for­ma­tion­nelles. Il théori­sait sur le fait que l’on pou­vait créer des ensem­bles de règles pour la musique – une gram­maire – avec plusieurs « couch­es » ; la pre­mière décrirait com­ment ces struc­tures sonores de sur­face étaient organ­isées. Les autres plus pro­fondes, com­prendraient des règles abor­dant des principes de plus en plus généraux sur l’or­gan­i­sa­tion musi­cale et, au niveau le plus pro­fond, la gram­maire for­malis­erait les règles régis­sant les principes de l’or­gan­i­sa­tion sociale. Si le but ultime d’un eth­no­mu­si­co­logue est de reli­er la struc­ture sociale à la struc­ture sonore, ou vice ver­sa, alors c’é­tait cette idée que J. Blacking défendait pour attein­dre cet objectif.

L’été 1981, j’ai fui la chaleur intense des plaines du nord de l’Inde et me suis réfugié près de Mussoorie dans les con­tre­forts de l’Himalaya. J’avais con­venu de retrou­ver mon ami F. Silkstone, qui à l’époque étu­di­ait le sitār avec Imrat Khan et le dhru­pad avec Fahimuddin Dagar à Calcutta. Francis est arrivé avec Fahimuddin et l’un des étu­di­ants améri­cains de Fahim, Jim Arnold. Jim et Bernard Bel (un infor­mati­cien et math­é­mati­cien qui vivait à l’époque à New Delhi) tra­vail­laient ensem­ble pour un pro­jet expéri­men­tal sur l’in­to­na­tion dans le rāga. Bernard est alors arrivé à Mussoorie, égale­ment pour échap­per à la chaleur, et pen­dant env­i­ron un mois nous avons tous vécu ensem­ble dans un envi­ron­nement riche et fer­tile de musique et d’idées. C’est là que Bernard et moi avons dis­cuté pour la pre­mière fois de la notion des gram­maires socio-musicales de J. Blacking, ain­si que de ma fas­ci­na­tion pour un type de com­po­si­tion des joueurs de tablā, avec une struc­ture offrant un thème et des vari­a­tions, con­nues sous le nom de qāi­da. J’étais très curieux d’apprendre que Bernard pou­vait con­cevoir un pro­gramme infor­ma­tique capa­ble de mod­élis­er le proces­sus de créa­tion de vari­a­tions à par­tir d’un thème donné.

L’année suiv­ante, Bernard et moi nous sommes ren­con­trés à plusieurs repris­es : il en a appris beau­coup plus sur le fonc­tion­nement du tablā et j’ai beau­coup appris sur la lin­guis­tique math­é­ma­tique. Ensemble, nous avons créé des ensem­bles de règles – des gram­maires trans­for­ma­tion­nelles – qui ont généré des vari­a­tions à par­tir d’un thème de qāi­da et traité des vari­a­tions exis­tantes pour déter­min­er si nos règles pou­vaient en tenir compte. Mais il était évi­dent que les con­nais­sances mod­élisées étaient les miennes et non celles de musi­ciens experts. Alors nous avons dévelop­pé une stratégie pour impli­quer ces experts en tant que « col­lab­o­ra­teurs et ana­lystes » (une expres­sion sou­vent util­isée par J. Blacking) dans un échange dialec­tique. Après tout, un « sys­tème expert » était des­tiné à mod­élis­er les con­nais­sances d’ex­perts, et il n’y avait pas de meilleur expert qu’Afaq Hussain.

➡ Pour plus d’informations sur ces expéri­ences, voir : https://bolprocessor.org/bp1-in-real-musical-context/

Avais-tu con­nais­sance d’autres types de démarch­es inter­ac­tives comme celle du re-recording dévelop­pée un peu plus tôt par S. Arom ?

J’étais au courant des méth­odes inter­ac­tives de S. Arom pour obtenir les pro­pres per­spec­tives des musi­ciens sur ce qui se pas­sait dans leur musique, tout comme j’é­tais au courant des travaux en anthro­polo­gie cog­ni­tive visant à déter­min­er les caté­gories cog­ni­tives sig­ni­fica­tives pour les per­son­nes que nous étudi­ions. La thèse de S. Arom selon laque­lle les don­nées cul­turelles devaient être validées par nos inter­locu­teurs a cer­taine­ment été très influ­ente. Je ne con­nais­sais pas d’autres approches. Les exi­gences de notre sit­u­a­tion expéri­men­tale par­ti­c­ulière nous ont oblig­és à inven­ter notre pro­pre méthodolo­gie unique pour ce proces­sus d’interaction homme-machine.

On con­naît la crainte des maîtres indi­ens d’une dif­fu­sion de leurs savoirs au-delà de leur gharānā, et en par­ti­c­uli­er cer­taines tech­niques et com­po­si­tions. Quelles étaient l’attitude et l’implication d’Afaq Hussain dans cette démarche qui met­tait à jour les struc­tures des qāida ?

Afaq Hussain n’é­tait pas du tout préoc­cupé par les révéla­tions con­cer­nant le qāi­da puisque l’art de les jouer dépendait de sa capac­ité à impro­vis­er. En d’autres ter­mes, il s’agissait d’une activ­ité axée sur les proces­sus et donc en con­stante évo­lu­tion. A l’inverse, les com­po­si­tions fix­es, en par­ti­c­uli­er celles trans­mis­es de généra­tion en généra­tion au sein de la famille, ne changeaient pas. Celles-ci étaient con­sid­érées comme des atouts pré­cieux et étaient soigneuse­ment gardées.

 Lorsque je repense aux expéri­ences sci­en­tifiques, je m’é­tonne que Bernard ait pu créer une gram­maire généra­tive aus­si puis­sante pour un ordi­na­teur (d’abord un Apple II avec 64k RAM, puis le portable 128k Apple IIc) avec une puis­sance de traite­ment et un espace aus­si lim­ité. Afaq Hussain s’est égale­ment éton­né qu’une machine « puisse penser », pour repren­dre son expres­sion. Nous avons com­mencé par une gram­maire de base pour un qāi­da don­né, puis généré quelques vari­a­tions, et je les ai ensuite lues à voix haute en util­isant la langue syl­labique, les bols pour tablā. De nom­breux résul­tats étaient prévis­i­bles, cer­tains étaient inhab­ituels mais néan­moins accept­a­bles, et d’autres ont été jugés erronés – tech­nique­ment et esthé­tique­ment. Nous avons ensuite demandé à Afaq Hussain de pro­pos­er ses pro­pres vari­a­tions ; celles-ci ont été intro­duites dans l’or­di­na­teur (j’ai effec­tué la saisie en util­isant un sys­tème de cor­réla­tion de clés pour gag­n­er en rapid­ité) et « analysées » pour déter­min­er si les règles de notre gram­maire pou­vaient en tenir compte. De sim­ples ajuste­ments aux règles étaient pos­si­bles in situ, mais lorsqu’une repro­gram­ma­tion plus com­plexe était néces­saire, nous pas­sions à un deux­ième exem­ple et reve­nions à l’exemple d’o­rig­ine dans une ses­sion ultérieure.

Fig. 2 : James Kippen, Afaq Hussain et son fils Ilmas Hussain, Lucknow, 1982, pho­to de James Kippen

Est-ce que ces recherch­es ont con­cerné d’autres types de com­po­si­tion comme les gat ou les tukra ?

Non. L’avantage d’observer une struc­ture de thème et de vari­a­tions comme celle des qāi­da est fondé sur le fait que chaque com­po­si­tion est un sys­tème fer­mé où les vari­a­tions (vistār) sont lim­itées aux élé­ments présen­tés dans le thème. Le but est donc de com­pren­dre les règles non écrites pour créer des vari­a­tions. Les com­po­si­tions fix­es comme les gat, ṭukṛā, paran, etc., com­pren­nent une var­iété d’élé­ments beau­coup plus large et plus imprévis­i­ble, et seraient ain­si très dif­fi­ciles à mod­élis­er. Cependant, nous avons pu expéri­menter sur le type de com­po­si­tion appelé tihāī : la phrase répétée trois fois qui agit comme une cadence ryth­mique finale. Cette dernière peut être mod­élisée math­é­ma­tique­ment afin d’obtenir une for­mule arith­mé­tique dans laque­lle on peut pro­pos­er des phras­es ryth­miques, puis être appliquée soit à un qāi­da (un frag­ment de son thème ou l’une de ses vari­a­tions), soit à des com­po­si­tions fix­es comme par exem­ple le ṭukṛā.

Est-ce que cer­taines phras­es ryth­miques générées par l’ordinateur et validées par Afaq Hussain ont inté­gré le réper­toire du gharānā de Lucknow ?

C’est une ques­tion dif­fi­cile. Lorsque nous étions au milieu d’une péri­ode inten­sive d’ex­péri­men­ta­tion avec le « Bol Processor », une sorte de dia­logue se met­tait en bran­le où Afaq Hussain alter­nait des phras­es ryth­miques générées par ordi­na­teur avec des ensem­bles de vari­a­tions qui lui étaient pro­pres. Tant de com­po­si­tions ont été générées et alternées de cette manière qu’il était sou­vent dif­fi­cile de savoir si le réper­toire qu’il jouait en con­cert prove­nait de l’or­di­na­teur ou pas. Pourtant, alors que cer­tains enseignants et inter­prètes dévelop­pent un réper­toire de vari­a­tions fix­es provenant d’un thème, Afaq Hussain lui l’a rarement fait, s’ap­puyant plutôt sur son imag­i­na­tion « dans l’in­stant ». C’est aus­si l’ap­proche qu’il a encour­agée en nous. Par con­séquent, je doute que le matériel généré par ordi­na­teur soit devenu une par­tie per­ma­nente du répertoire.

Est-ce que ce type d’approche spé­ci­fique util­isant l’IA en eth­no­mu­si­colo­gie a été pour­suivi par d’autres ?

Le terme « Intelligence Artificielle » a fait l’ob­jet d’un change­ment rad­i­cal dans les années 1980-1990 grâce au développe­ment de l’ap­proche « con­nex­ion­niste » (les neu­rones arti­fi­ciels) et de tech­niques d’ap­pren­tis­sage à par­tir d’ex­em­ples capa­bles de traiter une grande masse de don­nées. Avec le Bol Processor (BP) nous étions au stade de la mod­éli­sa­tion symbolique-numérique de déci­sions humaines représen­tées par des gram­maires formelles, ce qui exigeait une con­nais­sance appro­fondie, bien qu’in­tu­itive, des mécan­ismes de décision.

Pour cette rai­son, les approches symboliques-numériques n’ont pas été repris­es par d’autres équipes à ma con­nais­sance. Par con­tre, nous avions aus­si abor­dé l’ap­pren­tis­sage automa­tique (de gram­maires formelles) à l’aide du logi­ciel QAVAID écrit sous Prolog II. Nous avons ain­si mon­tré que la machine devait col­lecter des infor­ma­tions en dia­loguant avec le musi­cien pour effectuer une seg­men­ta­tion cor­recte des phras­es musi­cales et amorcer un tra­vail de général­i­sa­tion par inférence induc­tive. Mais ce tra­vail n’a pas été pour­suivi car les machines étaient trop lentes et nous ne dis­po­sions pas de cor­pus assez grands pour con­stru­ire un mod­èle cou­vrant une grande var­iété de mod­èles d’improvisation.

Il se peut que des chercheurs indi­ens fassent appel à de l’ap­pren­tis­sage à par­tir d’ex­em­ples – qu’on appelle aujour­d’hui « Intelligence Artificielle » – pour traiter de grandes mass­es de don­nées pro­duites par des per­cus­sion­nistes. Cette approche « big data » a le défaut de man­quer de pré­ci­sion dans un domaine où la pré­ci­sion est un mar­queur d’ex­per­tise musi­cale, et de ne pas pro­duire des algo­rithmes com­préhen­si­bles qui con­stitueraient une « gram­maire générale » de l’im­pro­vi­sa­tion sur un instru­ment de per­cus­sion. Notre ambi­tion ini­tiale était de con­tribuer à la con­struc­tion de cette gram­maire, mais nous avons seule­ment prou­vé, avec la tech­nolo­gie de l’époque, que ce serait réalisable.

Fig. 3 : Bhupal Ray Chowdhury (dis­ci­ple de Wajid Hussain et son fils Afaq Hussain) et J. Kippen en séance d’expérimentation avec le Bol Processor, Calcutta, 1984, pho­to de James Kippen

Dans les ver­sions ultérieures, ce logi­ciel a pu pro­cur­er égale­ment de la matière et des out­ils pour le tra­vail de com­po­si­tion en musique et en danse au-delà du con­texte indi­en. On fêtera en 2021 les 40 ans de ce logi­ciel avec une nou­velle ver­sion. Quels sont les artistes qui ont util­isé le logiciel ? 

Des com­po­si­tions ryth­miques pro­gram­mées sur BP2 et inter­prétées sur un syn­thé­tiseur Roland D50 ont été util­isées pour l’œu­vre choré­graphique CRONOS dirigée par Andréine Bel et pro­duite en 1994 au NCPA de Bombay. Voir par exem­ple https://bolprocessor.org/shapes-in-rhythm/.

A la fin des années 1990, le com­pos­i­teur néer­landais H. Visser a util­isé BP2 pour con­tribuer au développe­ment d’opéra­teurs per­me­t­tant la com­po­si­tion de musique sérielle. Voir par exem­ple https://bolprocessor.org/harm-vissers-examples/.

Nous avons eu des retours et deman­des d’u­ni­ver­si­taires européens et améri­cains qui utilisent BP2 comme out­il péd­a­gogique pour l’en­seigne­ment de la com­po­si­tion musi­cale. Mais nous n’avons jamais fait de cam­pagne « pub­lic­i­taire » à grande échelle pour agrandir la com­mu­nauté d’u­til­isa­teurs, étant intéressés en pri­or­ité par le développe­ment du sys­tème et la recherche musi­cologique qui lui est associée.

La prin­ci­pale lim­ite de BP2 était son fonc­tion­nement exclusif dans l’en­vi­ron­nement Mac. C’est pourquoi la ver­sion BP3 en cours de développe­ment est mul­ti­plate­forme. Elle sera vraisem­blable­ment mise en ser­vice en ver­sion « Cloud » ren­du pos­si­ble par son inter­ac­tion étroite avec le logi­ciel Csound. Ce logi­ciel per­met de pro­gram­mer des algo­rithmes per­for­mants de pro­duc­tion sonore et de tra­vailler avec des mod­èles d’in­to­na­tion micro­tonale que nous avons dévelop­pés, aus­si bien pour la musique har­monique que pour le raga indi­en – voir https://bolprocessor.org/category/related/musicology/.

Etudes de la notation, du mètre, du rythme et de leurs évolutions

Au fil de ton tra­vail, la ques­tion de la nota­tion musi­cale occupe une place impor­tante autant sur le plan de la méthodolo­gie que sur celui de la réflex­ion à pro­pos de son usage. Tu as mis en place ton pro­pre sys­tème afin de représen­ter le plus rigoureuse­ment pos­si­ble tes analy­ses des com­po­si­tions de tablā et de pakhā­vaj. Peux-tu nous par­ler de cet aspect de ton travail ? 

Toutes les nota­tions écrites sont des approx­i­ma­tions incom­plètes et leur con­tri­bu­tion au proces­sus de trans­mis­sion est lim­ité. Les représen­ta­tions orales, comme les suites de syl­labes énon­cées (bols) représen­tant des frappes de per­cus­sion, trans­met­tent sou­vent des infor­ma­tions plus pré­cis­es sur la musi­cal­ité inhérente aux mod­èles, tels que l’accentuation, l’in­flex­ion, le phrasé et la vari­abil­ité micro-rythmique. De même, une fois intéri­or­isées, ces syl­labes sont indélé­biles. Nous savons que les sys­tèmes oraux favorisent une bonne mémoire musi­cale, ce qui est par­ti­c­ulière­ment impor­tant dans le con­texte de la per­for­mance musi­cale en Inde où les inter­prètes ne com­men­cent qu’avec une feuille de route très générale, mais pren­nent ensuite toutes sortes de détours inat­ten­dus. Dans cette per­spec­tive, on pour­rait se deman­der pourquoi écrire quoi que ce soit ?

À par­tir des années 1860, il y a eu un essor des nota­tions musi­cales en Inde, inspiré il me sem­ble par la prise de con­science que la musique occi­den­tale pos­sé­dait un sys­tème de nota­tion effi­cace, et sus­cité aus­si par l’aug­men­ta­tion con­stante de l’ap­pren­tis­sage insti­tu­tion­nal­isé et d’un besoin appar­ent de textes péd­a­gogiques et de réper­toires. Pourtant, il n’y a jamais eu de con­sen­sus sur la façon de not­er, et chaque nou­veau sys­tème dif­férait grande­ment des autres. La nota­tion conçue en 1903 par Gurudev Patwardhan était sans doute la plus détail­lée et la plus pré­cise jamais créée pour les per­cus­sions comme le tablā et le pakhā­vaj, mais elle était sûre­ment trop com­pliquée pour que les étu­di­ants la lisent comme une par­ti­tion. Son objec­tif pre­mier était donc davan­tage d’être un ouvrage de référence qui préser­vait le réper­toire et four­nis­sait un pro­gramme pour un appren­tis­sage structuré.

Nous vivons dans un monde de l’écrit et les musi­ciens recon­nais­sent que leurs élèves ne con­sacrent plus leurs journées entières à la pra­tique. Comme d’autres pro­fesseurs, Afaq Hussain nous a tous encour­agés à écrire le réper­toire qu’il enseignait pour qu’il ne soit pas oublié. Pour moi, il était par­ti­c­ulière­ment impor­tant de saisir deux aspects dans mes pro­pres cahiers : la pré­ci­sion ryth­mique et les doigtés pré­cis. En ce qui con­cerne ce dernier, par exem­ple, face à la phrase keṛe­na­ga tirak­iṭa takata­ka tirak­iṭa, je m’assurais de not­er cor­recte­ment le doigté pré­cis dans la douzaine de tech­niques pos­si­bles pour takata­ka, sans par­ler des var­iétés de keṛe­na­ga, et j’indiquais égale­ment que les deux ver­sions de tirak­iṭa avaient été jouées légère­ment différemment.

Afaq Hussain a gardé ses pro­pres cahiers rangés en toute sécu­rité dans une armoire ver­rouil­lée. Il les con­sul­tait par­fois. Je pense qu’il avait con­science du fait que le réper­toire dis­parais­sait effec­tive­ment avec la tra­di­tion orale. Après tout, il y a des cen­taines, voire des mil­liers de morceaux de musique. Son grand-père, Abid Hussain (1867-1936) fut le pre­mier pro­fesseur de tablā au Bhatkhande Music College de Lucknow. Lui aus­si a noté des com­po­si­tions de tablā, et j’ai en ma pos­ses­sion des cen­taines de pages qu’il a écrites sans aucun doute pour être pub­liées sous forme de texte péd­a­gogique. Cependant, il n’a pas indiqué de rythmes ou de doigtés pré­cis, et l’in­ter­pré­ta­tion de sa musique est donc prob­lé­ma­tique, même pour le fils d’Afaq Hussain, Ilmas Hussain, avec qui j’ai passé tout son réper­toire au peigne fin. Une nota­tion pré­cise a donc de la valeur, si elle est accom­pa­g­née d’une tra­di­tion orale qui peut ajouter toutes les infor­ma­tions néces­saires pour don­ner vie à la musique.

Avec tes recherch­es récentes sur de nom­breux textes indo-persans des XVIIIe et XIXe siè­cles, tu mets en évi­dence l’évolution de la représen­ta­tion de la métrique en Inde. Ces recherch­es illus­trent l’importance de l’approche his­torique et met­tent en évi­dence pleine­ment les mécan­ismes d’évolution des faits cul­turels. Quels sont les con­cepts que tu utilis­es pour décrire ces phénomènes ?

Une facette impor­tante de notre for­ma­tion anthro­pologique était d’ap­pren­dre à fonc­tion­ner dans la langue de ceux avec qui nous nous sommes engagés dans nos recherch­es, non seule­ment pour gér­er la vie au quo­ti­di­en, mais aus­si pour avoir accès à des con­cepts qui sont sig­ni­fi­cat­ifs dans la cul­ture étudiée. Deux ter­mes sont impor­tants à cet égard, l’un dont l’im­por­tance est à mon avis exagérée, l’autre sous-estimée. Premièrement, gharānā, qui depuis sa pre­mière appari­tion dans les années 1860 sig­nifi­ait « famille » mais qui, au fil du temps, en est venu à englober toute per­son­ne qui croit partager cer­tains élé­ments de tech­nique, de style ou de réper­toire avec une per­son­ne dom­i­nante du passé. Deuxièmement, sil­si­la, un terme com­mun dans le soufisme qui sig­ni­fie « chaîne, con­nex­ion ou suc­ces­sion », et qui a une per­ti­nence spé­ci­fique dans le cas de l’enseignement dans une lignée de musi­ciens. C’est cette sil­si­la plus pré­cise qui détient, selon moi, la clé de la trans­mis­sion de la cul­ture musi­cale, et pour­tant le para­doxe est que la chaîne porte en elle une direc­tive implicite pour explor­er l’individualité créa­trice. C’est pourquoi, par exem­ple, lorsque l’on exam­ine la lignée des joueurs de tablā de Delhi à par­tir du milieu du XIXe siè­cle, on con­state des dif­férences majeures de tech­nique, de style et de réper­toire d’une généra­tion à l’autre. Il en va de même pour mon pro­fesseur Afaq Hussain, dont le jeu dif­férait grande­ment de celui de son père et enseignant Wajid Hussain. Chaque indi­vidu hérite d’une cer­taine essence musi­cale dans la sil­si­la, bien sûr, mais il doit s’en­gager et opér­er dans un monde en con­stante évo­lu­tion où la survie artis­tique néces­site une adap­ta­tion. Il est donc d’une impor­tance vitale lors de l’é­tude de toute époque musi­cale de recueil­lir autant d’in­for­ma­tions que pos­si­ble sur le milieu socio­cul­turel observé.

Comme je viens de le démon­tr­er, il est impératif de s’en­gager avec des con­cepts de la cul­ture, de les expli­quer et de les utilis­er sans recourir à la tra­duc­tion. Un autre excel­lent exem­ple est celui du terme tāla, qui est le plus sou­vent traduit par mètre ou cycle métrique. Et pour­tant, il y a une dif­férence fon­da­men­tale entre les deux. Le mètre est implicite : c’est un motif qui est dérivé des rythmes de sur­face d’une pièce, et se com­pose d’une impul­sion sous-jacente qui est organ­isée en une séquence hiérar­chique récur­rente de bat­te­ments forts et faibles. Mais, par con­traste, tāla est explicite : c’est un motif récur­rent de bat­te­ments non hiérar­chiques se man­i­fes­tant par des gestes de la main con­sis­tant en des claps, des mou­ve­ments silen­cieux de la main et des comptes sur les doigts, ou comme une séquence rel­a­tive­ment fixe de frappes de per­cus­sion. Utiliser le terme « mètre » dans le con­texte indi­en est donc trompeur, et j’en­cour­age donc l’u­til­i­sa­tion de terme tāla avec une expli­ca­tion mais sans traduction.

Tu tra­vailles actuelle­ment sur un ouvrage con­cer­nant les sources du XVIIIe et XIXe siè­cles, quel est ton objectif ?

Mon objec­tif est de retrac­er les orig­ines et l’évo­lu­tion du sys­tème du tāla actuelle­ment util­isé dans la musique hin­dous­tanie en rassem­blant autant d’in­for­ma­tions que pos­si­ble à par­tir de sources con­tem­po­raines de la fin du XVIIe siè­cle jusqu’au début du XXe siè­cle et de l’ère de l’enregistrement. Le prob­lème est que les infor­ma­tions disponibles sont frag­men­taires et sou­vent rédigées dans un lan­gage obscur : la tâche s’ap­par­ente à un puz­zle où la plu­part des pièces man­quent. De plus, les sources que l’on trou­ve ne sont pas néces­saire­ment directe­ment con­nec­tées, et donc j’ai plutôt l’impression de tra­vailler avec deux ou plusieurs puz­zles à la fois. En bref, après une analyse minu­tieuse, des déduc­tions et des hypothès­es, je pense qu’il y a eu une con­ver­gence des sys­tèmes ryth­miques au XVIIIe siè­cle qui a don­né nais­sance au sys­tème du tāla d’aujourd’hui.

 Les pra­tiques musi­cales et les con­textes soci­aux des divers­es com­mu­nautés (les Kalāwant qui chan­taient le dhru­pad, les Qawwāl qui chan­taient le khayāl, le tarā­na et le qaul, ain­si que la com­mu­nauté des Ḍhāḍhī qui accom­pa­g­naient tous ces gen­res musi­caux), doivent impéra­tive­ment être pris en compte pour com­pren­dre com­ment et pourquoi la musique et le rythme en par­ti­c­uli­er, ont évolués comme ils l’ont fait. Pourtant, il y a tant d’autres aspects impor­tants dans cette his­toire : le rôle des femmes instru­men­tistes dans les espaces privés de la vie mog­hole au XVIIIe siè­cle, et leur dis­pari­tion pro­gres­sive au XIXe siè­cle, le colo­nial­isme, le statut et l’in­flu­ence des textes anciens, les tech­niques d’im­pres­sion et la dif­fu­sion de nou­veaux textes péd­a­gogiques à la fin du XIXe siè­cle, pour n’en citer que quelques-uns.

Quelles sont les sources intéres­santes à con­sid­ér­er pour com­pren­dre l’évolution des pra­tiques et des représen­ta­tions ryth­miques de la musique hindoustanie ?

Le nord de l’Inde a tou­jours été ouvert aux échanges cul­turels, et cela était par­ti­c­ulière­ment le cas sous les Moghols. Il est impératif de com­pren­dre qui se rendait dans ces cours, d’où ils venaient et ce qu’ils jouaient. Il est tout aus­si impor­tant de com­pren­dre les doc­u­ments écrits disponibles ain­si que les dis­cours intel­lectuels de l’époque, car la con­nais­sance de la musique était cru­ciale pour l’é­ti­quette mog­hole. Ainsi, quand on sait que le traité de musique très influ­ent Kitāb al-adwār, du théoricien du XIIIe siè­cle Safi al-Din al-Urmawi al-Baghdadi, était large­ment disponible en Inde en arabe et en tra­duc­tion per­sane, et que des exem­plaires se trou­vaient dans la col­lec­tion des nobles de Delhi à par­tir du XVIIe siè­cle, on com­prend mieux pourquoi le rythme indi­en était expliqué en util­isant les principes de la prosodie arabe à la fin du XVIIIe siè­cle. Mon argu­ment est que la prosodie arabe, appliquée à la musique, était un out­il plus puis­sant que les méth­odes tra­di­tion­nelles de prosodie san­skrite, et qu’elle était donc plus effi­cace pour décrire les change­ments qui se pro­dui­saient dans la pen­sée et la pra­tique ryth­mique à cette époque.

Ces recherch­es ethno-historiques bous­cu­lent par­fois les croy­ances de cer­tains musi­ciens et chercheurs, notam­ment sur les ques­tions d’ancienneté et d’« authen­tic­ité » des tra­di­tions. Penses-tu que les musi­ciens d’aujourd’hui sont davan­tage enclins à accepter les évi­dences de la nature com­plexe des tra­di­tions musi­cales, for­mées de mul­ti­ples apports et en per­pétuelles transformations ?

Certains le sont, mais cer­tains ne le sont pas. Il y a tou­jours eu un petit nom­bre de chercheurs en Inde qui menaient des recherch­es pré­cieuses et factuelles sur la musique. Pourtant, je suis déçu de con­stater qu’il y en a beau­coup d’autres qui reposent sur le rabâchage et la dif­fu­sion d’opin­ions non fondées et non savantes. Ce qui me sur­prend peut-être le plus, c’est le manque de for­ma­tion sci­en­tifique rigoureuse dans les uni­ver­sités de musique en Inde et la per­sis­tance d’idées et d’in­for­ma­tions réfutées ou dis­créditées en dépit de tant d’ex­cel­lentes recherch­es pub­liées indi­quant le contraire.

Fig. 4 : J. Kippen, 2017, Université de Toronto. Photo de James Kippen

Depuis les années 1990, on con­state le ren­force­ment d’un nation­al­isme hin­dou au sein de la société indi­enne. Notes-tu un impact par­ti­c­uli­er sur le monde de la musique hin­dous­tanie et sur celui de la recherche ?

Il s’agit là d’un sujet com­plexe et sen­si­ble. Le nation­al­isme hin­dou n’est pas nou­veau, loin de là, et comme je l’ai démon­tré dans mon livre sur Gurudev Patwardhan, il a con­sti­tué une par­tie impor­tante de la rai­son d’être de la vie et de l’œu­vre de Vishnu Digambar Paluskar au début du XXe siè­cle. Comme de nom­breux chercheurs l’ont souligné, ce nation­al­isme avait ses racines dans le colo­nial­isme et s’est dévelop­pé en tant que mou­ve­ment anti­colo­nial axé sur la poli­tique iden­ti­taire hin­doue. Ce réc­it, basé sur des notions inven­tées d’un passé hin­dou glo­rieux, a min­imisé les con­tri­bu­tions de la cul­ture mog­hole et des grandes lignées de musi­ciens musul­mans (sans par­ler des femmes). Depuis ce temps, l’i­den­tité musul­mane indi­enne dans le domaine de la musique a con­nu un cer­tain déclin. Les chercheurs ont pris note de cette chute et ont ten­té de retrac­er cer­tains des contre-récits qui ont jusqu’à présent été ignorés, comme l’ex­cel­lent livre de Max Katz Lineage of Loss (Wesleyan University Press, 2017) sur une grande famille de musiciens-savants musul­mans, nom­mée Shahjahanpur-Lucknow gharānā. Je pense que dans de nom­breuses études actuelles qui por­tent sur la musique en Inde se trou­ve une forte moti­va­tion de ne pas omet­tre ces réc­its cul­turels impor­tants, de les réanimer et de les replac­er dans le grand réc­it de l’his­toire de l’Asie du Sud.

A la suite de R. Stewart, tu as mis en évi­dence l’intrication com­plexe des approches ryth­miques et métriques dans le jeu des joueurs de tablā en mon­trant qu’il résulte de divers apports cul­turels qui se sont suc­cédés dans le temps. Avec l’intensification des échanges cul­turels mon­di­aux depuis la fin du XXe siè­cle, as-tu observé une ou des ten­dances évo­lu­tives dans le jeu des joueurs de tablā ?

Depuis l’in­clu­sion du tablā dans la musique pop des années 1960, l’exaltante fusion jazz du groupe Shakti de John McLaughlin dans les années 1970 et l’om­niprésence aujourd’hui du tablā dans la musique sous toutes ses formes, il sem­ble tout naturel que les joueurs de tablā du monde entier aient envie d’explorer et d’expérimenter ses sons mag­iques. Zakir Hussain a mon­tré la voie en démon­trant la flex­i­bil­ité et l’adapt­abil­ité de cet instru­ment, ain­si que la véloc­ité vis­cérale et pal­pi­tante de ses motifs rythmiques.

Quant au tablā, dans le con­texte de la musique de con­cert hin­dous­tanie, j’ai remar­qué que nom­breux sont ceux qui ten­tent d’in­jecter ce même sen­ti­ment d’ex­al­ta­tion, ren­for­cé de plus en plus, semble-t-il, par une ampli­fi­ca­tion si forte qu’elle déforme le son et heurte les tym­pa­ns du pub­lic jusqu’à la soumis­sion.  J’irais jusqu’à dire que c’est mal­heureuse­ment devenu la norme. À cet égard, je me con­sid­ère comme une sorte de puriste qui aspire à un retour à une pra­tique où le joueur de tablā main­tient un rôle sub­til, dis­cret mais de sou­tien, et com­plète la ligne du soliste, en restant mod­este et sans domin­er la scène lorsqu’il est invité à faire une petite appari­tion ou un court solo. De la même manière, je désire un retour aux soli de tablā qui regor­gent de con­tenu plutôt que d’« effets sonores ». Par « con­tenu », j’en­tends des com­po­si­tions tra­di­tion­nelles de car­ac­tère, dotées de tech­niques spé­cial­isées, dont les com­pos­i­teurs sont nom­més et ain­si hon­orés. Et pour­tant, il est douloureuse­ment évi­dent qu’un tel « con­tenu » n’at­teint pas beau­coup de jeunes joueurs de nos jours.

Ethnomusicologie

Comme évo­qué, tes recherch­es met­tent en avant l’importance des sources his­toriques aus­si bien que la prise en compte des phénomènes plus large comme l’orientalisme ou le nation­al­isme pour com­pren­dre le présent des pra­tiques musi­cales indi­ennes. En même temps tu es très atten­tif aux intens­es phénomènes tran­scul­turels actuels et à la néces­sité de les appréhen­der. Dans la pro­fes­sion, le con­cept d’« eth­no­mu­si­colo­gie » ne fait pas tou­jours con­sen­sus. Quelle est ta posi­tion par rap­port à cette appel­la­tion et à l’objet de cette dis­ci­pline en ce début du XXIe siècle ?

Je n’ai jamais été par­ti­c­ulière­ment à l’aise avec l’é­ti­quette d’« eth­no­mu­si­colo­gie ». Comme dis­ait J. Blacking, toute musique est de la « musique eth­nique », et par con­séquent, il ne devrait pas y avoir de dis­tinc­tion entre les études sur le tablā, le game­lan, le hip-hop et celles sur Bach, Beethoven ou Brahms. Nous nous enga­geons tous dans un « dis­cours sur la musique », une « musi­colo­gie ». L’avantage de ter­mes comme « anthro­polo­gie » ou « soci­olo­gie » de la musique est qu’ils impliquent une gamme plus large d’ap­proches théoriques et méthodologiques qui nous rap­pel­lent que la musique est un fait social. Pourtant, nous devons recon­naître que le champ des études eth­no­mu­si­cologiques a évolué et que, de nos jours, une atten­tion bien plus grande est accordée à des phénomènes comme le bruit ou les sons de la vie quo­ti­di­enne. Par con­séquent (sans vouloir paraître trop cynique) bien que dans cer­tains milieux les « sound stud­ies » soient traitées avec un cer­tain mépris, ce terme très général est peut-être la déf­i­ni­tion la plus hon­nête et la plus pré­cise de ce que nous (nous tous) faisons. Je recon­nais toute­fois qu’il serait dom­mage de rejeter com­plète­ment le terme « musique », et donc j’aime con­cevoir l’eth­no­mu­si­colo­gie, la musi­colo­gie et la théorie musi­cale se réu­nis­sant sous la rubrique « musique et sound stud­ies ».

Enseignement

Après une courte péri­ode à Belfast, tu as enseigné à Toronto, peux tu nous par­ler de ton expéri­ence d’enseignement ?

Toronto est une ville mer­veilleuse et, selon la plu­part des témoignages, c’est la ville la plus mul­ti­cul­turelle de la planète. Elle offre un envi­ron­nement musi­cal très riche et stimulant.

Miecyzslaw Kolinski a enseigné à l’Université de Toronto de 1966 à 1978. Ses intérêts eth­no­mu­si­cologiques ont été façon­nés par sa for­ma­tion auprès de Hornbostel et Sachs, et par la vision d’un monde, partagée par tant de géants de notre dis­ci­pline. Ses pub­li­ca­tions por­tent sur les bases sci­en­tifiques de l’har­monie et de la mélodie et il a dévelop­pé des méth­odes d’analyse inter­cul­turelle. Son approche a été caté­gorique­ment rejetée dans ma pro­pre for­ma­tion avec John Blacking qui a tou­jours défendu avec véhé­mence le rel­a­tivisme cul­turel, tout comme cela était en con­tra­dic­tion avec la for­ma­tion de Tim Rice à l’Université de Washington. Tim a été embauché en 1974 et est par­ti pour l’UCLA en 1987. Comme moi à mes débuts, Tim a eu du mal à con­va­in­cre ses col­lègues de l’im­por­tance de l’ap­proche eth­no­mu­si­cologique et de la néces­sité de traiter notre dis­ci­pline avec le respect qu’elle mérite et les ressources qu’elle néces­site. Nous avons tous les deux beau­coup lut­té. Tim a créé un pro­gramme qui est devenu con­nu sous ma direc­tion sous le nom « The World Music Ensembles », et pour ma part j’ai acquis un game­lan bali­nais en 1993, aidé par mon épouse, l’eth­no­mu­si­co­logue Annette Sanger, anci­enne col­lègue de J. Blacking. De plus, Tim et moi avons réus­si à inté­gr­er davan­tage les cours d’eth­no­mu­si­colo­gie au cœur du pro­gramme pour nous assur­er que tous les étu­di­ants en musique, quels que soient leurs intérêts, soient exposés à notre approche et com­pren­nent la valeur et l’im­por­tance d’une vision sociale­ment fondée de toute musique. J’ai créé un cours d’in­tro­duc­tion d’un an inti­t­ulé Music as Culture que j’ai co-enseigné pen­dant quelques années avec un col­lègue de musi­colo­gie : nous avons alterné nos cours, illus­trant et croisant notre cor­pus et nos obser­va­tions sur nos canons occi­den­taux et le vaste monde de la musique au-delà. Mon cours Introduction to Music & Society est devenu emblé­ma­tique. Mon approche étant essen­tielle­ment mod­u­laire, les thèmes choi­sis ont changé et se sont adap­tés au fil du temps pour refléter des préoc­cu­pa­tions plus con­tem­po­raines, notam­ment la musique et l’i­den­tité, l’ex­péri­ence religieuse, la migra­tion, le genre, la guéri­son et les sound stud­ies.

Dans mes fonc­tions d’enseignant, j’ai conçu et enseigné une var­iété de cours : Hindustani music, Music & Islam, Theory & Method in Ethnomusicology, The Beatles, Anthropology of Music, Fieldwork, Music, Colonialism & Postcolonialism, Rhythm & Metre in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Transcription, Notation & Analysis, etc. J’ai tra­vail­lé avec la com­mu­nauté sud-asiatique de Toronto pour organ­is­er des con­certs du chanteur Pandit Jasraj. Ils ont attiré des spon­sors générant des bours­es d’é­tudes fiables pour des étu­di­ants dont les recherch­es por­taient sur la musique hin­dous­tanie. J’ai aidé à met­tre en place un pro­gramme d’artiste en rési­dence, invi­tant des musi­ciens du monde entier à pass­er un trimestre avec nous à enseign­er et à jouer. J’ai con­tribué à la refonte de nos pro­grammes d’é­tudes supérieures axés sur la musi­colo­gie et j’ai intro­duit dans le pro­gramme d’étude une maîtrise et un doc­tor­at en eth­no­mu­si­colo­gie. Mais les deux réal­i­sa­tions dont je suis sans doute le plus fier sont pre­mière­ment les nom­breux et mer­veilleux doc­tor­ants que j’ai encadrés, dont beau­coup ont eux-mêmes pour­suivi une car­rière dans le milieu uni­ver­si­taire, et deux­ième­ment le suc­cès de mon ini­tia­tive d’élargissement de notre représen­ta­tion : nous sommes passés d’un seul poste de pro­fesseur à qua­tre tit­u­laires à plein-temps en ethnomusicologie.

Quelle est ta place au sein du gharānā de Lucknow ?

J’ai beau­coup appré­cié appren­dre et jouer du tablā dans ma vie et je me con­sid­ère extrême­ment chanceux d’avoir eu un lien aus­si étroit et pro­duc­tif avec l’un des joueurs de tablā les plus remar­quables de l’his­toire : Afaq Hussain. J’ai la chance d’avoir une bonne mémoire et j’ai donc encore dans ma tête un vaste réper­toire de com­po­si­tions mer­veilleuses remon­tant aux pre­miers mem­bres de la lignée Lucknow qui ont prospéré à la fin du XVIIIe et au début du XIXe siè­cle. Je suis par­ti­c­ulière­ment intéressé par la tech­nique et j’ai passé beau­coup de temps à étudi­er les mécan­ismes du jeu. Cependant, je suis avant tout un éru­dit et, en pra­tique, je ne me fais aucune illu­sion d’être guère plus qu’un ama­teur. En effet, mon intérêt pour le jeu m’a fourni des aperçus extra­or­di­naires de l’in­stru­ment et de son histoire.

Quant à ma place ou mon rôle au sein du gharānā de Lucknow, je dirais deux choses. Tout d’abord, je con­tin­ue à faire par­tie de l’échange d’idées et de réper­toire avec mes pairs aux côtés desquels j’ai étudié le tablā et qui font par­tie main­tenant, comme moi, des grandes fig­ures de la sil­si­la, la lignée directe de l’enseignement d’Afaq Hussain. Ils me con­sid­èrent comme un pro­fes­sion­nel avisé,  une autorité dans mon domaine. Parfois, on me demande si je me sou­viens d’une com­po­si­tion rare sur laque­lle il y a eu débat, et par­fois j’in­tro­duis dans notre dia­logue des infor­ma­tions et des ques­tions issues de mes recherch­es qui sus­ci­tent un vif intérêt. Par exem­ple, le fils d’Afaq Hussain, Ilmas Hussain, et moi-même avons tra­vail­lé ensem­ble pour ressus­citer les cahiers de son arrière-grand-père Abid Hussain et les plac­er dans leur con­texte, non seule­ment celui de leur tra­di­tion mais aus­si celui de la fin des années 1920 et du début des années 1930, années durant lesquelles Abid Hussain incar­nait le tout pre­mier pro­fesseur de tablā au Bhatkhande College de Lucknow. Enfin, je pense que mes travaux ont su attir­er une plus grande atten­tion sur la lignée de Lucknow. Quand je suis arrivé à la porte d’Afaq Hussain en jan­vi­er 1981, il était affaib­li – psy­chologique­ment et finan­cière­ment – et son avenir était incer­tain. D’autres étu­di­ants étrangers ont suivi mon exem­ple et ont rejoint un nom­bre tou­jours crois­sant de dis­ci­ples indi­ens venus pour appren­dre. Mon livre, The Tabla of Lucknow, ain­si que d’autres facettes de mes recherch­es ont donc bien con­tribué à attir­er l’at­ten­tion nationale et inter­na­tionale sur Afaq Hussain, son fils Ilmas et toute leur tradition.

Liste des publications

Ouvrages         

2006                   Gurudev’s Drumming Legacy : Music, Theory and Nationalism in the Mrdang aur Tabla Vadanpaddhati of Gurudev Patwardhan. Aldershot : Ashgate (SOAS Musicology Series).

2005                   The Tabla of Lucknow : A Cultural Analysis of a Musical Tradition. New Delhi : Manohar (Nouvelle édi­tion avec nou­velle préface).

1988                   The Tabla of Lucknow : A Cultural Analysis of a Musical Tradition. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press (Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology).

Direction d’ouvrage          

2013                   avec Frank Kouwenhoven, Music, Dance and the Art of Seduction. Delft : Eburon Academic Publishers.

Direction de revue

1994-1996        Bansuri (A year­ly jour­nal devot­ed to the music and dance of India, pub­lished by Raga Mala Performing Arts of Canada). Volume 13, 1996 (60 pp), vol­ume 12, 1995 (60 pp), vol­ume 11, 1994 (64 pp).

Articles, chapitres d’ouvrages

À paraître           « Weighing ‘The Assets of Pleasure’: Interpreting the Theory and Practice of Rhythm and Drumming in the Sarmāya-i ‘Ishrat, a Pivotal 19th Century Text. », in Katherine Schofield, dir. : Hindustani Music Between Empires : Alternative Histories, 1748-1887. Éditeur à préciser.

À paraître           « An Extremely Nice, Fine and Unique Drum : A Reading of Late Mughal and Early Colonial Texts and Images on Hindustani Rhythm and Drumming. », in Katherine Schofield, Julia Byl et David Lunn, dir. : Paracolonial Soundworlds : Music and Colonial Transitions in South and Southeast Asia. Éditeur à préciser.

2021                   « Ethnomusicology at the Faculty of Music, University of Toronto. » MUSICultures (Journal of the Canadian Society for Traditional Music). Vol. 48.

2020                   « Rhythmic Thought and Practice in the Indian Subcontinent. » in Russell Hartenberger & Ryan McClelland, dir. : The Cambridge Companion to Rhythm. Cambridge University Press : 241-60.

2019                   « Mapping a Rhythmic Revolution Through Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Sources on Rhythm and Drumming in North India. » In Wolf, Richard K., Stephen Blum, & Christopher Hasty, dir. : Thought and Play in Musical Rhythm: Asian, African, and Euro-American Perspectives. Oxford University Press : 253-72.

2013                   « Introduction. » In Frank Kouwenhoven & James Kippen, dir. : Music, Dance and the Art of Seduction. Delft : Eburon Academic Publishers : i-xix.

2012                   « On the con­tri­bu­tions of Pt. Sudhir V. Mainkar to our under­stand­ing of the tabla.” Souvenir Volume in Honour of Sudhir Vishnu Mainkar. Sharda Sangeet Vidyalaya : Mumbai.

2010                   « The History of Tabla. » In Joep Bor, Françoise ‘Nalini’ Delvoye, Jane Harvey and Emmie te Nijenhuis, dir. : Hindustani Music, Thirteenth to Twentieth Centuries. New Delhi : Manohar : 459-78.

2008                   « Working with the Masters. » In Gregory Barz and Timothy Cooley, dir. : Shadows in the Field : New Perspectives for Fieldwork in Ethnomusicology (2nd Edition révisée). Oxford University Press : 125–40.

2008                   « Hindustani Tala : An Introduction. » Concise Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. New York : Garland [ver­sion con­den­sée de la pub­li­ca­tion de 2000].

 2007                  « The Tal Paddhati of 1888 : An Early Source for Tabla. » Journal of the Indian MusicologicalSociety, 38 : 151–239.

2005                   « Lucknow » Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Part 2, Vol. 5, Locations: Asia & Oceania. London : Continuum : 109–110.

2003                   « Le rythme: Vitalité de l’Inde. » In Gloire des princes, louange des dieux: Patrimoine musi­cal de l’Hindoustan du XIVe au XXe siè­cle. Paris : Cité de la musique et Réunion des Musées Nationaux 2003 :152–73.

2002                   « Wajid Revisited : A Reassessment of Robert Gottlieb’s Tabla Study, and a new Transcription of the Solo of Wajid Hussain Khan of Lucknow. » Asian Music, 33, 2 : 111–74.

2001                   « Asian Music [in Ontario]. » Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 3, The United States and Canada. New York : Garland Publishing : 1215–17.

2001                   « Folk Grooves and Tabla Tals. » ECHO: a music-centered jour­nal.  III: 1 (Spring 2001). En Ligne http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/echo/volume3-issue1/kippen/

2000                   « Hindustani Tala. » Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 5, South Asia: The Indian Subcontinent. New York : Garland Publishing : 110–37.

1998                   « What’s Wrong With Hindustani Music ? » Sruti (Madras), no.160 (réédi­tion de l’article parut dans Kala, 1996).

1998                   « Musings on Dhrupad, and an Interview with Falguni Mitra. » Kala, Volume 2, no.1 : 4.

1997                   « The Musical Evolution of Lucknow. » In Violette Graff, dir., Lucknow : Memories of a City. New Delhi : Oxford University Press : 181–95.

1996                   « A la recherche du temps musi­cal. » Temporalistes, 34 : 11-22 En ligne : http://temporalistes.socioroom.org/spip.php?article228

1996                   avec Andréine Bel « Lucknow Kathak Dance. » Bansuri (Journal of the Raga Mala Performing Arts of Canada), 13 : 42–50. En ligne : http://www.pathcom.com/~ericp/kathak.html

1996                   « What’s Wrong With Hindustani Music? » Kala, Volume 1, no.2, 1996 : 4–7.

1995                   Réponse à « Theory of Participatory Discrepancies » de Charles Keil Ethnomusicology, 39, 1 : 77–78.

1994                   « Computers, Composition, and the Challenge of ‘New Music’ in Modern India. » Leonardo Music Journal, 4 : 79–84.
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00143124

1992                   « Tabla Drumming and the Human-Computer Interaction. » The World of Music, 34, 3 : 72–98.

1992                   « Music and the Computer : Some Anthropological Considerations. » Interface, 21, 3-4 : 257–62.

1992                   « Where Does The End Begin ? Problems in Musico-Cognitive Modelling. » Minds & Machines, 2, 4 : 329–44.

1992                   « Identifying Improvisation Schemata with QAVAID. » In Walter B. Hewlett & Eleanor Selfridge-Field, dir. : Computing in Musicology : An International Directory of Applications, Volume 8. Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities :115–19.

1992                   « Bol Processor Grammars. » In M. Balaban, K. Ebcioglu, & O. Laske, dir. : Understanding AI with Music, AAAI Press : 367–400.
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00256386

1992                   avec Bernard Bel « Modelling Music with Grammars : Formal Language Representation in the Bol Processor. » In A. Marsden & A. Pople, dir. : Computer Representations and Models in Music. London, Academic Press : 207–38.
https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00004506

1991                   avec Bernard Bel  « From Word-Processing to Automatic Knowledge Acquisition : A Pragmatic Application for Computers in Experimental Ethnomusicology. » in Ian Lancashire, dir. : Research in Humanities Computing I : Papers from the 1989 ACH-ALLC Conference, Oxford University Press : 238–53.

1991                   « Changes in the Social Status of Tabla Players. » Bansuri, 8 : 16–27, 1991. (réédi­tion de la pub­li­ca­tion de JIMS, 1989)

1990                   « Music and the Computer: Some Anthropological Considerations. » In B. Vecchione & B. Bel, dir. : Le Fait Musical — Sciences, Technologies, Pratiques, pré­fig­u­ra­tion des actes du col­loque Musique et Assistance Informatique, CRSM-MIM, Marseille, France, 3-6 Octobre : 41–50.

1989                   « Changes in the Social Status of Tabla Players. » Journal of the Indian Musicological Society, 20, 1 & 2 : 37–46.

1989                   « Can a Computer Help Resolve the Problem of Ethnographic Description? » Anthropological Quarterly, 62, 3 : 131–44.
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00275429

1989                   Avec Bernard Bel « The Identification and Modelling of a Percussion ‘Language’, and the Emergence of Musical Concepts in a Machine-Learning Experimental Set-Up. » Computers and the Humanities, 23, 3 : 199–214.
https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00004505

1989                   « Computers, Fieldwork, and the Analysis of Cultural Systems. » Bulletin of Information on Computing and Anthropology, 7, 1989 : 1–7. En ligne : http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/bicaweb/b7/kippen.html

1988                   « Computers, Fieldwork, and the Problem of Ethnomusicological Analysis. » International Council for Traditional Music (UK Chapter) Bulletin, 20 : 20–35.

1988                   Avec Bernard Bel « Un mod­èle d’inférence gram­mat­i­cale appliquée à l’apprentissage à par­tir d’exemples musi­caux. » Neurosciences et Sciences de l’Ingénieur, 4e Journées CIRM, Luminy, 3–6 Mai 1988. 

1988                   « On the Uses of Computers in Anthropological Research. » Current Anthropology, 29, 2 : 317–20.

1987                   « An Ethnomusicological Approach to the Analysis of Musical Cognition. » Music Perception 5, 2 : 173–95.

1987                   Avec Annette Sanger « Applied Ethnomusicology : the Use of Balinese Gamelan in Recreational and Educational Music Therapy. » British Journal of Music Education 4, 1 : 5–16.

1986                   Avec Annette Sanger « Applied Ethnomusicology : the Use of Balinese Gamelan in Music Therapy. » International Council for Traditional Music (UK Chapter) Bulletin, 15 : 25–28.

1986                   « Computational Techniques in Musical Analysis. » Bulletin of Information on Computing and Anthropology (University of Kent at Canterbury), 4 : 1–5.

1985                   « The Dialectical Approach : a Methodology for the Analysis of Tabla Music. » International Council for Traditional Music (UK Chapter) Bulletin, 12 : 4–12.

1984                   « Linguistic Study of Rhythm: Computer Models of Tabla Language. » International Society for Traditional Arts Research Newsletter, 2 : 28–33.

1984                   « Listen Out for the Tabla. » International Society for Traditional Arts Research Newsletter, 1 : 13–14.

Comptes ren­dus    

2012                   Elliott, Robin and Gordon E. Smith, dir. : Music Traditions, Cultures and Contexts, Wilfrid Laurier University Press,  in « Letters in Canada 2010 », University of Toronto Quarterly, 81: 3 :779–80.

2006                   McNeil, Adrian Inventing the Sarod : A Cultural History. Calcutta : Seagull Press, 2004. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 38 : 133–35.

1999                   Myers, Helen, Music of Hindu Trinidad : Songs from the India Diaspora. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1998. Notes : 427–29.

1999                   Marshall, Wolf, The Beatles Bass. Hal Leonard Corporation, 1998. Beatlology, 5.

1997                   Widdess, Richard, The Ragas of Early Indian Music: Music, Modes, Melodies, and Musical Notations from the Gupta Period to c.1250. Oxford Monographs on Music. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1995. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 117, 3 : 587.

1994                   Rowell, Lewis, Music and Musical Thought in Early India. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology, edit­ed by Philip V. Bohlman and Bruno Nettl. Chicago and London : The University of Chicago Press, 1992. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 114, 2 : 313.

1992                   Compte ren­du CD : « Bengal : chants des ‘fous’ », par Georges Luneau & Bhaskar Bhattacharyya, and « Inde du sud : musiques rit­uelles et théâtre du Kerala », par Pribislav Pitoëff. Asian Music 23, 2 :181–84.

1992                   Witmer, Robert, dir. : “Ethnomusicology in Canada : Proceedings of the First Conference on Ethnomusicology in Canada.” (CanMus Documents, 5) Toronto, Institute for Canadian Music, 1990. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 24 : 170–71.

1992                   Neuman, Daniel M. The Life of Music in North India: The Organization of an Artistic Tradition. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1990. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 112, 1 : 171.

1988                   Qureshi, Regula Burckhardt. Sufi Music of India and Pakistan : Sound, Context and Meaning in the Qawwali. Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology. Cambridge : CUP, 1986. International Council for Traditional Music (UK Chapter) Bulletin, 20 : 40–45.

1986                   Wade, Bonnie C. Khyal : Creativity with­in North India’s Classical Music Tradition. Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology. Cambridge : CUP. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society : 144–46.

Enregistrements

1999                   Honouring Pandit Jasraj at Convocation Hall, University of Toronto. 2 CD set. Foundation for the Indian Performing Arts, FIPA002.

1995                   Pandit Jasraj Live at the University of Toronto. 2 CD set. Foundation for the Indian Performing Arts, FIPA001.

Livrets d’album musical

2009                   Liner notes for Mohan Shyam Sharma (pakhavaj): Solos in Chautal and Dhammar. India Archive Music CD, New York.

2007                   Liner notes for Anand Badamikar (tabla): Tabla Solo in Tintal. India Archive Music (IAM•CD 1084), New York.

2002                   Pandit Shankar Ghosh : Tabla Solos in Nasruk Tal and Tintal. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1054), New York.

2001                   Shujaat Khan, Sitar : Raga Bilaskhani Todi & Raga Bhairavi. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1046), New York.

1998                   Pandit Bhai Gaitonde : Tabla Solo in Tintal. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1034), New York.

1995                   Ustad Amjad Ali Khan : Rag Bhimpalasi & Rag “Tribute to America”. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1019), New York.

1994                   Ustad Nizamuddin Khan : Tabla Solo in Tintal. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1014), New York.

1992                   Rag Bageshri & Rag Zila Kafi, played by Tejendra Narayan Majumdar (sar­od) and Pandit Kumar Bose (tabla). CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD 1008), New York.

Hommage

1990                   « In Memoriam : Afaq Husain (1930-1990). » Ethnomusicology 34, 3 : 429–30.

1990                   « In Memoriam : John Blacking (1928-1990). » Ethnomusicology 34, 2 : 263–6.


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At the heart of Indian rhythms and their evolution

An inter­view with James Kippen
Version française

by Antoine Bourgeau

James Kippen is one of the key fig­ures in the study of Hindustani music. His encounter in 1981 with Afaq Hussain, at the time the doyen of one of the great tablā-play­ing lin­eages, was the start­ing point for major research into both the instru­ment and Indian rhythm. From 1990 to 2019 he was the head of eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy at the Faculty of Music in the University of Toronto in Canada. Trained under John Blacking and John Baily, he also acquired over the course of his research a mas­tery of sev­er­al Indo-Persian lan­guages. This abil­i­ty has allowed him to analyse first-hand numer­ous sources (trea­tis­es on music, musi­cians’ own writ­ings, genealo­gies, icono­graph­ic mate­ri­als…) and to under­stand the chang­ing socio­cul­tur­al con­texts in which they were pro­duced (the Indo-Persian courts, the colo­nial British Empire, the rise of Indian Nationalism, and the post-colonial state). His work (see the select list of pub­li­ca­tions at the end of this inter­view) stands out as a major con­tri­bu­tion to the under­stand­ing of the the­o­ry and prac­tice of rhythm and metre in India.

I began cor­re­spond­ing with James Kippen dur­ing my own research on tablā at the end of the 1990s. Always quick to share his knowl­edge and his expe­ri­ence with enthu­si­asm, he gave me a lot of advice and encour­age­ment, and it was a great hon­our to count him among the mem­bers of my the­sis jury dur­ing my defence in 2004. It was with that same will­ing­ness to share that he respond­ed favourably to my pro­pos­al to inter­view him. Carried out remote­ly between July and December 2020, this exchange cov­ers near­ly 40 years of eth­no­mu­si­co­log­i­cal research.

➡ Source = doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.12650.03522
➡ Version française = doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.26071.80804
ou https://bolprocessor.org/kippen-interview-fr/

The path to India and to the tablā

– How did you become inter­est­ed in the musics of India, and in the tablā in particular?

As a child grow­ing up in London, I was fas­ci­nat­ed by the dif­fer­ent lan­guages and cul­tures that were increas­ing­ly being intro­duced by immi­grants to Britain. I was par­tic­u­lar­ly enchant­ed by the lit­tle Indian cor­ner shops brim­ming with exot­ic goods and the Indian restau­rants that emit­ted allur­ing, spicy aro­mas. My father reg­u­lar­ly regaled me with sto­ries of his adven­tures from the sev­en years he spent in India as a young sol­dier, and I devel­oped an entire­ly favourable though admit­ted­ly Orientalist impres­sion of the sub­con­ti­nent. During my music degree at the University of York (1975-78), I was intro­duced by my friend and fel­low stu­dent Francis Silkstone to the sitār. I also had the good for­tune to take an inten­sive course in Hindustani music with lec­tur­er Neil Sorrell, who had stud­ied sāraṅgī with the great Ram Narayan. The avail­able lit­er­a­ture at that time was rel­a­tive­ly sparse, but two texts in par­tic­u­lar were high­ly influ­en­tial: Rebecca Stewart’s Tablā in Perspective (UCLA, 1974), which nur­tured in me a musi­co­log­i­cal inter­est in the vari­eties and com­plex­i­ties of rhythm and drum­ming, and Daniel Neuman’s The Cultural Structure and Social Organization of Musicians in India: the Perspective from Delhi (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 1974), which offered social-anthropological insights into both the worlds and the world­views of tra­di­tion­al, hered­i­tary musicians.

Thus, I began learn­ing tablā from Robert Gottlieb’s LP record­ings and book­lets called 42 Lessons for Tabla, and after a few months I had learnt enough basic mate­r­i­al to accom­pa­ny Francis Silkstone in a recital. I lat­er stud­ied in per­son under Manikrao Popatkar, an excel­lent pro­fes­sion­al tablā play­er who had recent­ly immi­grat­ed to Britain. I was hooked. Moreover, the thought that I might enter that socio-musical world of tablā in India and become a participant-observer moti­vat­ed me to look at grad­u­ate pro­grams where I would be able to devel­op the knowl­edge and skills to com­bine the musi­co­log­i­cal and anthro­po­log­i­cal approach­es of Stewart and Neuman. On Neil Sorrell’s advice I wrote to John Blacking about the pos­si­bil­i­ty of study­ing at The Queen’s University of Belfast, and John was most encour­ag­ing, offer­ing me entry direct­ly to the doc­tor­al pro­gram. He also point­ed out that his col­league John Baily had recent­ly writ­ten a text: Krishna Govinda’s Rudiments of Tabla Playing. It seemed I had found the ide­al grad­u­ate pro­gram and the per­fect mentors.

Methodological approaches

– The book How Musical Is Man? by John Blacking is a fun­da­men­tal text that appeared in 1973 that ran counter to the think­ing of the time and refused to recog­nise the bar­ri­ers between musi­col­o­gy and eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy, as well as the fruit­less dif­fer­ences between musi­cal tra­di­tions. Blacking also put for­ward the essen­tial idea that music, even if that word does not exist every­where, is present in all human cul­tures, result­ing in his def­i­n­i­tion of “human­ly organ­ised sound.” Do you know if he knew of Edgar Varèse’s expres­sion “organ­ised sound,” which Varèse put for­ward in 1941 in an attempt to dis­tance him­self from the Western con­cept of “music,” albeit for oth­er reasons?

I have no per­son­al rec­ol­lec­tion of Blacking ever men­tion­ing Varèse or his thoughts on the nature of music. Nonetheless, Blacking was an excel­lent musi­cian and pianist who had doubt­less encoun­tered and stud­ied a great deal of Western Art Music, and so it is pos­si­ble he knew of Varèse’s def­i­n­i­tion. However, where­as Varèse’s phi­los­o­phy was born out of a con­vic­tion that machines and tech­nolo­gies would be capa­ble of organ­is­ing sound, Blacking want­ed to re-centre music as a social fact: an activ­i­ty where the myr­i­ad ways in which human beings organ­ised sound both as per­form­ers and, impor­tant­ly, as lis­ten­ers promised to reveal a great deal about their social structure.

– How did your stud­ies at uni­ver­si­ty guide your research?

I was lucky enough to have not one but two men­tors in John Blacking and John Baily, and they were very dif­fer­ent from one anoth­er. Blacking was full of grand and inspir­ing ideas that chal­lenged and rev­o­lu­tion­ized the way one thinks about music and soci­ety, where­as Baily empha­sized a more method­i­cal and empirically-based approach ground­ed in per­for­mance and the care­ful acqui­si­tion and doc­u­men­ta­tion of data. One should remem­ber that I was young and inex­pe­ri­enced when I under­took field­work, and so Baily’s exam­ple, focussed on doing music and on gath­er­ing data, served as a prac­ti­cal guide in my dai­ly life dur­ing my years in India; yet once I was armed with a huge cor­pus of infor­ma­tion I was able to stand back and, hope­ful­ly like Blacking, see some of the grand pat­terns which that data spelled out. I was struck there­fore by the con­sis­tent nar­ra­tive of cul­tur­al decline linked to a nos­tal­gia for a glo­ri­ous and artistically-abundant past, and the tablā music of Lucknow was one of the last liv­ing links to that lost world. This became one of the key themes in my doc­tor­al dis­ser­ta­tion, and in some of the oth­er work that fol­lowed. As for my career as a teacher, I have tried over the years to com­bine the best qual­i­ties of both my men­tors, always pro­mot­ing the idea that the­o­ry should grow out of sol­id data about music and musi­cal lives so that it does not lose its heuris­tic val­ue by aban­don­ing its dia­logue with ethno­graph­ic reality.

– In Working with the Masters (2008), you describe in detail and with frank­ness (some­thing that is fair­ly rare in the pro­fes­sion!) your field­work expe­ri­ence with Afaq Hussain in the 1980s. This expe­ri­ence, and your account of it, appear to be a mod­el for any research in eth­nol­o­gy and eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy, par­tic­u­lar­ly as it applies to learn­ing music. Thus, you account for the phas­es of approach­ing, meet­ing, being test­ed and, final­ly (and for­tu­nate­ly in your case), accep­tance with­in the research con­text; the trust you were grant­ed allowed you to pur­sue in full your research and music-learning goals. You also tack­le the eth­i­cal and deon­to­log­i­cal con­sid­er­a­tions essen­tial to any researcher: one’s rela­tion­ship to oth­ers, con­flicts of loy­al­ty result­ing from pos­si­ble incon­sis­ten­cies between that rela­tion­ship and one’s ethno­graph­ic objec­tives, respon­si­bil­i­ty to the gath­ered knowl­edge, and the place of the researcher-musician with­in the musi­cal real­i­ty of the tra­di­tion stud­ied. Beyond the par­tic­u­lar­i­ties of the musi­cal con­text, are there any spe­cif­ic fea­tures of Indian cul­ture that Western researchers need to bear in mind in order to under­take (and hope­ful­ly suc­ceed with) an eth­no­log­i­cal study in India?

It goes with­out say­ing that South Asian soci­ety has changed enor­mous­ly in the 40 years since I first began con­duct­ing ethno­graph­ic research, but cer­tain prin­ci­ples stead­fast­ly remain that should guide the inves­tiga­tive process, such as a deeply ingrained respect for social and cul­tur­al senior­i­ty. Naturally, access to a com­mu­ni­ty is key, and there is no bet­ter “gate­keep­er” or “spon­sor” (to use the anthro­po­log­i­cal terms) than an author­i­ty fig­ure with­in the sub­cul­ture one is study­ing, since the per­mis­sion one receives trick­les down through the social and famil­ial hier­ar­chy. The dan­ger, in a heav­i­ly patri­ar­chal soci­ety like India’s, is that one ends up with a top-down view of musi­cal life. If I had an oppor­tu­ni­ty to revis­it my field I would pay greater atten­tion to those at dif­fer­ent lev­els with­in that hier­ar­chy, espe­cial­ly to women and to the every­day musi­cal­i­ty of life in the domes­tic sphere. By focussing only on the most refined aspects of cul­tur­al pro­duc­tion, one may miss much that is of val­ue in the for­ma­tion of ideas, of aes­thet­ics, and in the sup­port mech­a­nisms nec­es­sary for an artis­tic tra­di­tion to sur­vive and thrive.

Fig.1: Recording ses­sion with Afaq Hussain at the home of James Kippen. Lucknow, 1982. Photo by James Kippen.

On a more prac­ti­cal note – some­thing that applies I think rather more gen­er­al­ly in the field­work endeav­our – I found that for­mal, record­ed inter­views were rarely very insight­ful because they were felt to be intim­i­dat­ing and were accom­pa­nied by lofty expec­ta­tions. Furthermore, a height­ened sen­si­tiv­i­ty to the polit­i­cal ram­i­fi­ca­tions – micro and macro – of speak­ing one’s mind on record was also often an imped­i­ment to gath­er­ing infor­ma­tion. In truth, the less I asked and the more I lis­tened – off the record and in relaxed cir­cum­stances – the more use­ful and insight­ful the infor­ma­tion I received. The caveat is that to oper­ate in that way one must devel­op a lev­el of patience that would be dif­fi­cult for most Westerners to accept.

– In the 1980s you adopt­ed the “dialec­ti­cal approach” taught by John Blacking and com­bined it with com­put­er sci­ence and an Artificial Intelligence pro­gram. The aim was to analyse the fun­da­men­tals of impro­vi­sa­tion by tablā play­ers. Can you go over the gen­e­sis and evo­lu­tion of this approach?

John Blacking was par­tic­u­lar­ly inter­est­ed in Noam Chomsky’s work on trans­for­ma­tion­al gram­mars. He the­o­rized that one could cre­ate sets of rules for music – a gram­mar – with the top­most lay­er describ­ing how those sur­face sound struc­tures were organ­ised. At deep­er lev­els the lay­ers of rules would address increas­ing­ly more gen­er­al prin­ci­ples of musi­cal organ­i­sa­tion, and at the very deep­est lev­el the gram­mar would for­malise rules gov­ern­ing prin­ci­ples of social organ­i­sa­tion. If an eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gist’s ulti­mate aim is to relate social struc­ture to sound struc­ture, or vice ver­sa, then this was Blacking’s idea of how one might achieve that goal.

In the sum­mer of 1981, I escaped the intense heat of the North Indian plains and head­ed to Mussoorie in the foothills of the Himalayas. I had agreed to meet up again with my friend Francis Silkstone, who at the time was study­ing sitār with Imrat Khan and dhru­pad vocal music with Fahimuddin Dagar in Calcutta. Francis arrived with Fahimuddin and one of Fahim’s American stu­dents named Jim Arnold. Jim was col­lab­o­rat­ing on some exper­i­men­tal work on rāga into­na­tion with Bernard Bel, who at that time was liv­ing in New Delhi. Bernard then arrived in Mussoorie, also to escape the heat, and for about a month we all lived togeth­er in a rich and fer­tile envi­ron­ment of music and ideas. It was there that Bernard and I first dis­cussed Blacking’s notion of socio-musical gram­mars as well as my fas­ci­na­tion with tablā’s theme-and-variations struc­tures known as qāi­da. I was intrigued when Bernard sug­gest­ed that he could design a com­put­er pro­gram capa­ble of mod­el­ling the process of cre­at­ing vari­a­tions from a giv­en theme.

Over the fol­low­ing year, Bernard and I met sev­er­al times: he learnt much more about how tablā works and I learnt much more about math­e­mat­i­cal lin­guis­tics. Together we cre­at­ed sets of rules – trans­for­ma­tion­al gram­mars – that gen­er­at­ed vari­a­tions from a qāi­da theme and processed exist­ing vari­a­tions to deter­mine if our rules could account for them. Yet it was also clear that the knowl­edge being mod­elled was my own and not that of expert musi­cians. Therefore, we devel­oped a strat­e­gy to involve those experts as “co-workers and ana­lysts” (a phrase Blacking often used) in a dialec­ti­cal exchange. After all, an “expert sys­tem” was intend­ed to mod­el expert knowl­edge, and there was no bet­ter expert than Afaq Hussain.

➡ For more infor­ma­tion about these exper­i­ments, vis­it: https://bolprocessor.org/bp1-in-real-musical-context/

– Were you aware of oth­er types of inter­ac­tive approach­es, such as Simha Arom’s “re-recording” devel­oped a few years earlier?

I was aware of Simha Arom’s inter­ac­tive meth­ods of elic­it­ing musi­cians’ own per­spec­tives on what was hap­pen­ing in their music, much as I was aware of work in cog­ni­tive anthro­pol­o­gy aimed at deter­min­ing cog­ni­tive cat­e­gories mean­ing­ful to the peo­ple we stud­ied. Arom’s insis­tence that cul­tur­al data had to be val­i­dat­ed by our inter­locu­tors was cer­tain­ly very influ­en­tial. I did not know of oth­er approach­es. The exi­gen­cies of our par­tic­u­lar exper­i­men­tal sit­u­a­tion forced us to invent our own unique method­ol­o­gy for this human-computer interaction.

– We know of the fear Indian mas­ters have of their knowl­edge being spread beyond their own gharānā, in par­tic­u­lar, cer­tain tech­niques and com­po­si­tions. What was Afaq Hussain’s atti­tude regard­ing this, and what was his involve­ment in this method that updat­ed the soft­ware for exam­in­ing qāi­da structures?

Afaq Hussain was not remote­ly con­cerned about rev­e­la­tions regard­ing qāi­da since the art of play­ing them depend­ed on one’s abil­i­ty to impro­vise. In oth­er words, this was a process-oriented and there­fore ever-changing endeav­our. On the con­trary, play­ing fixed com­po­si­tions, espe­cial­ly those hand­ed down over gen­er­a­tions with­in the fam­i­ly, were product-oriented, and the pieces did not change. Those were con­sid­ered pre­cious assets, and were care­ful­ly guarded.

Fig.2: James Kippen, Afaq Hussain, and his son Ilmas
Hussain. Lucknow, 1982. Photo by James Kippen.

 When I reflect on the exper­i­ments, I mar­vel that Bernard Bel was able to cre­ate such a pow­er­ful gen­er­a­tive gram­mar for a com­put­er (first­ly an Apple II with 64k RAM, then the portable 128k Apple IIc) with such lim­it­ed pro­cess­ing pow­er and space. Afaq Hussain also mar­velled that a machine could “think,” as he put it. We began with a basic gram­mar for a giv­en qāi­da, gen­er­at­ed some vari­a­tions, and I then read those out loud using the syl­lab­ic lan­guage, the bols, for tablā. Many results were pre­dictable, some were unusu­al but nonethe­less accept­able, and oth­ers were deemed to be wrong – tech­ni­cal­ly, aes­thet­i­cal­ly. We then asked Afaq Hussain to offer a few vari­a­tions of his own; these were fed into the com­put­er (I typed using a key-correlation sys­tem for rapid entry) and “analysed” to deter­mine if the rules of our gram­mar could account for them. Simple adjust­ments to the rules were pos­si­ble in situ, but when more com­plex repro­gram­ming was required we would move on to a sec­ond exam­ple and return to the orig­i­nal exam­ple in a lat­er session.

Did this research ever involve oth­er types of com­po­si­tion such as gat or ṭukṛā?

No. The advan­tage of look­ing at a theme-and-variations struc­ture like qāi­da is that each com­po­si­tion is a closed sys­tem where vari­a­tions (vistār) are restrict­ed to the mate­r­i­al pre­sent­ed in the theme. Relā (rapidly-articulated strings of strokes) is anoth­er struc­ture that fol­lows sim­i­lar prin­ci­ples. The aim is there­fore to under­stand the unwrit­ten rules for cre­at­ing vari­a­tions. Fixed com­po­si­tions such as gat, ṭukṛā, paran, etc., com­prise a far wider and more unpre­dictable vari­ety of ele­ments, and would be very hard to mod­el. However, one thing we did exper­i­ment with was the tihāī, the thrice-repeated phrase that acts as a final rhyth­mic cadence. These can be mod­elled math­e­mat­i­cal­ly and applied to a qāi­da (based on frag­ments of its theme or one of its vari­a­tions) or to fixed com­po­si­tions like, say, ṭukṛā as an arith­metic for­mu­la into which one can pour rhyth­mic phrases.

– Did any of the rhyth­mic phras­es gen­er­at­ed by the com­put­er and val­i­dat­ed by Afaq Hussain Khan make it into the reper­toire of the Lucknow gharānā?

That is a hard ques­tion to answer. When we were in the mid­dle of an inten­sive peri­od of exper­i­men­ta­tion with the Bol Processor, there would devel­op a kind of dia­logue where Afaq Hussain would play mate­r­i­al gen­er­at­ed by the com­put­er and then respond with sets of vari­a­tions of his own. So many were gen­er­at­ed and exchanged in this way that it was often hard to tell whether some­thing he played in con­cert orig­i­nat­ed in the com­put­er. Yet, where­as some teach­ers and per­form­ers devel­op a reper­toire of fixed vari­a­tions for a theme, Afaq Hussain rarely did, rely­ing instead on his imag­i­na­tion “in the moment.” This is also the approach he encour­aged in us. Therefore, I doubt computer-generated mate­r­i­al became a per­ma­nent part of the repertoire.

Fig.3: Bhupal Ray Chowdhury (a dis­ci­ple of Wajid Hussain and his son Afaq Hussain) and James Kippen in an exper­i­men­tal ses­sion with the Bol Processor. Calcutta, 1984. Photo by James Kippen.

– Has this spe­cif­ic type of approach using Artificial Intelligence in eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy been pur­sued by others?

The term “Artificial Intelligence” under­went a rad­i­cal change in the years 1980-1990 thanks to the devel­op­ment of the “con­nec­tion­ist” approach (arti­fi­cial neu­rons) and learn­ing tech­niques from exam­ples with the capa­bil­i­ty of pro­cess­ing a large amount of data. With the Bol Processor (BP) we were at the stage of symbolic-numerical mod­el­ling of human deci­sions rep­re­sent­ed by for­mal gram­mars, which required in-depth, although intu­itive, knowl­edge of deci­sion mechanisms.

 For this rea­son, symbolic-numerical approach­es have not to my knowl­edge been tak­en up by oth­er teams. On the oth­er hand, we had also tack­led machine learn­ing (of for­mal gram­mars) using the QAVAID soft­ware writ­ten in Prolog II. We also showed that the machine had to col­lect infor­ma­tion by dia­logu­ing with the musi­cian in order to car­ry out a cor­rect seg­men­ta­tion of musi­cal phras­es and to begin gen­er­al­is­ing by induc­tive infer­ence. But this work was dis­con­tin­ued because the machines were too slow and we did not have a large enough body of data to build a mod­el capa­ble of cov­er­ing a wide vari­ety of impro­vi­sa­tion models.

It is pos­si­ble that Indian researchers will use learn­ing from exam­ples – now called Artificial Intelligence – to process large amounts of data pro­duced by per­cus­sion­ists. This “big data” approach has the draw­back of lack­ing pre­ci­sion in a field where pre­ci­sion is a mark­er of musi­cal exper­tise, and it does not pro­duce under­stand­able algo­rithms which would con­sti­tute a “gen­er­al gram­mar” of impro­vi­sa­tion on a per­cus­sion instru­ment. Our ini­tial ambi­tion was to con­tribute to the con­struc­tion of this gram­mar, but we only proved, using the tech­nol­o­gy avail­able at the time, that it would be feasible.

In lat­er ver­sions, this soft­ware was also able to pro­vide mate­r­i­al and tools for music and dance com­po­si­tion beyond the Indian con­text. We will be cel­e­brat­ing 40 years of this soft­ware next year with a new ver­sion. Who are the artists that have used this software?

Rhythmic com­po­si­tions pro­grammed on BP2 and per­formed on a Roland D50 syn­the­siz­er were used for the chore­o­graph­ic work CRONOS direct­ed by Andréine Bel and pro­duced in 1994 at the NCPA in Bombay. See, for exam­ple, https://bolprocessor.org/shapes-in-rhythm/.

At the end of the 1990s, the Dutch com­pos­er Harm Visser used BP2 to help devel­op oper­a­tors for ser­i­al music com­po­si­tion. See, for exam­ple, https://bolprocessor.org/harm-vissers-examples/.

We have had feed­back (and requests) from European and American aca­d­e­mics who use BP2 as an edu­ca­tion­al tool for teach­ing musi­cal com­po­si­tion. However, we have nev­er car­ried out a large-scale adver­tis­ing cam­paign to enlarge the user com­mu­ni­ty because we are pri­mar­i­ly inter­est­ed in the devel­op­ment of the sys­tem itself and in the musi­co­log­i­cal research asso­ci­at­ed with it.

The main lim­i­ta­tion of BP2 was its exclu­sive oper­a­tion with­in the Macintosh envi­ron­ment. This is why the BP3 ver­sion under devel­op­ment is cross-platform. It will prob­a­bly be imple­ment­ed in a Cloud ver­sion made pos­si­ble by its close inter­ac­tion with Csound soft­ware. This soft­ware makes it pos­si­ble to pro­gram high-performance sound pro­duc­tion algo­rithms and to work with micro­ton­al into­na­tion mod­els that we have devel­oped, both for har­mon­ic music and for Indian rāga. See, for exam­ple, https://bolprocessor.org/category/related/musicology/.

Studies of notation, metre, rhythm, and their evolution

– Over the course of your work, the ques­tion of musi­cal nota­tion has occu­pied an impor­tant place both in terms of method­ol­o­gy and also in con­sid­er­a­tions of how it is used. Can you speak to this aspect of your work?

All writ­ten nota­tions are incom­plete approx­i­ma­tions, and their con­tri­bu­tion to the trans­mis­sion process is lim­it­ed. Oral rep­re­sen­ta­tions, like the spo­ken strings of syl­la­bles rep­re­sent­ing drum strokes, often con­vey more accu­rate infor­ma­tion about the musi­cal­i­ty inher­ent in pat­terns, such as stress, inflec­tion, phras­ing, and micro-rhythmic vari­abil­i­ty. By the same token, once inter­nalised, those spo­ken strings are indeli­ble. We know that oral sys­tems pro­mote a healthy musi­cal mem­o­ry, which is par­tic­u­lar­ly impor­tant in the con­text of the per­for­mance of music in India where per­form­ers begin with only a very gen­er­al road map but then take all man­ner of unex­pect­ed twists and turns along the way. That being the case, one might ask why write any­thing down at all?

From the 1860s onwards, there was a bur­geon­ing of musi­cal nota­tions in India inspired, I believe, by an aware­ness that Western music pos­sessed an effi­cient nota­tion sys­tem, and prompt­ed too by the steady increase in insti­tu­tion­alised learn­ing and the per­ceived need for ped­a­gog­i­cal texts and asso­ci­at­ed reper­toire. Yet there was nev­er any con­sen­sus on how to notate, and each new sys­tem dif­fered great­ly from the oth­ers. The nota­tion devised in 1903 by Gurudev Patwardhan was arguably the most detailed and pre­cise ever cre­at­ed for drum­ming, yet it was sure­ly too com­pli­cat­ed for stu­dents to read as a score. Therefore, its pur­pose was more as a ref­er­ence work that pre­served reper­toire and pro­vid­ed a syl­labus for struc­tured learning.

We live in a lit­er­ate age, and musi­cians recog­nise that their stu­dents no longer devote their wak­ing hours to prac­tis­ing. Like oth­er teach­ers, Afaq Hussain encour­aged us all to write down the reper­toire he taught so that it would not be for­got­ten. For me, it was espe­cial­ly impor­tant to cap­ture two aspects in my own note­books: rhyth­mic accu­ra­cy and pre­cise fin­ger­ing. Regarding the lat­ter, for exam­ple, when faced with the phrase – keṛe­na­ga tirak­iṭa takata­ka tirak­iṭa – I want­ed to ensure that I notat­ed the cor­rect intend­ed fin­ger­ing from the dozen or so pos­si­ble tech­niques for takata­ka, not to men­tion the vari­eties of keṛe­na­ga, and I would also indi­cate that the two instances of tirak­iṭa were played slight­ly differently.

Afaq Hussain kept his own note­books safe­ly stored in a locked cup­board. He some­times con­sult­ed them. I think he recog­nised that reper­toire does indeed dis­ap­pear in the oral tra­di­tion – after all, there are many hun­dreds, if not thou­sands of pieces of music. His grand­fa­ther, Abid Hussain (1867-1936) was the first pro­fes­sor of tablā at the Bhatkhande Music College in Lucknow. He too notat­ed tablā com­po­si­tions, and I have hun­dreds of pages he wrote that were almost cer­tain­ly intend­ed to be pub­lished as a ped­a­gog­i­cal text. However, he did not indi­cate pre­cise rhythms or fin­ger­ings, and so inter­pret­ing his music is prob­lem­at­ic, even for Afaq Hussain’s son Ilmas Hussain with whom I combed through the mate­r­i­al. A pre­cise nota­tion, then, does have val­ue, but only along­side an oral tra­di­tion that can add the nec­es­sary lay­ers of infor­ma­tion that can bring the music to life.

– In your recent research on numer­ous Indo-Persian texts from the 18th and 19th cen­turies, you high­light the evo­lu­tion of the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of musi­cal metre in India. This research illus­trates the impor­tance of the his­tor­i­cal approach and ful­ly demon­strates the mech­a­nisms of the evo­lu­tion of cul­tur­al facts. What con­cepts do you use to describe these phenomena?

An impor­tant facet of our anthro­po­log­i­cal train­ing was learn­ing to func­tion in the lan­guage of those we engaged with in our research, not mere­ly to man­age life on a day-to-day basis but rather to have access to con­cepts that are mean­ing­ful with­in the cul­ture stud­ied. Two terms are sig­nif­i­cant in this regard, one whose impor­tance is, I think, over­stat­ed, the oth­er under­stat­ed. Firstly, gharānā, which from its first appear­ance in the 1860s orig­i­nal­ly meant “fam­i­ly” but which over time has come to encom­pass any­one who believes they share some ele­ments of tech­nique, style, or reper­toire with an api­cal fig­ure of the past. Secondly, sil­si­la, a term com­mon in Sufism which means chain, con­nec­tion, or suc­ces­sion, has spe­cif­ic rel­e­vance to a direct teach­ing lin­eage. It is this more pre­cise sil­si­la that I believe holds the key to the trans­mis­sion of musi­cal cul­ture, and yet the para­dox is that the chain car­ries with­in it an implic­it direc­tive to explore one’s cre­ative indi­vid­u­al­i­ty. That is why, for exam­ple, when one exam­ines, say, the lin­eage of Delhi tablā play­ers from the mid 19th cen­tu­ry onwards, one finds major dif­fer­ences in tech­nique, style, and reper­toire from gen­er­a­tion to gen­er­a­tion. The same is true for my teacher Afaq Hussain, whose play­ing dif­fered great­ly from that of his father and teacher Wajid Hussain. Each indi­vid­ual inher­its some musi­cal essence in the sil­si­la, for sure, but they must engage with and oper­ate in an ever-changing world where artis­tic sur­vival requires adap­ta­tion. It is there­fore vital­ly impor­tant when study­ing any musi­cal era to gath­er as much infor­ma­tion about the socio-cultural milieu as possible.

 As I have shown above, it is imper­a­tive to engage with native con­cepts, and to explain and use them with­out recourse to trans­la­tion. Another prime exam­ple is tāla, which most com­mon­ly gets trans­lat­ed as metre or met­ric cycle. And yet there is a fun­da­men­tal dif­fer­ence. Metre is implic­it: it is a pat­tern that is abstract­ed from the sur­face rhythms of a piece, and con­sists of an under­ly­ing pulse that is orga­nized into a recur­ring hier­ar­chi­cal sequence of strong and weak beats. On the oth­er hand, tāla is explic­it: it is a recur­ring pat­tern of non-hierarchical beats man­i­fest­ed as hand ges­tures con­sist­ing of claps, silent waves, and fin­ger counts, or as a rel­a­tive­ly fixed sequence of drum strokes. To use metre in the Indian con­text is there­fore mis­lead­ing, and I there­fore encour­age the use of tāla with an accom­pa­ny­ing expla­na­tion but with­out translation.

– You are cur­rent­ly work­ing on a book about 18th and 19th cen­tu­ry sources. What is your goal?

My goal is to trace the ori­gins and evo­lu­tion of the tāla sys­tem cur­rent­ly in use in Hindustani music by gath­er­ing as much infor­ma­tion as pos­si­ble from con­tem­po­rary sources begin­ning in the late 17th cen­tu­ry through to the ear­ly 20th cen­tu­ry and the era of record­ed sound. The prob­lem is that the avail­able infor­ma­tion is frag­men­tary and often couched in obscure lan­guage: the task is akin to doing a jig­saw puz­zle where most of the pieces are miss­ing. Moreover, the pieces one does find are not nec­es­sar­i­ly direct­ly con­nect­ed, and so the task might be bet­ter described as work­ing with two or more puz­zles. In brief, through care­ful analy­sis, infer­ence, and some guess­work, I believe that there was a con­ver­gence of rhyth­mic sys­tems in the 18th cen­tu­ry that gave rise to the tāla sys­tem of today.

The musi­cal prac­tices and social con­texts of the com­mu­ni­ties of Kalāwants who sang dhru­pad and Qawwāls who sang khayāl, tarā­na, and qaul, along with the Ḍhāḍhī com­mu­ni­ty that accom­pa­nied all these gen­res, are cru­cial to under­stand­ing how and why music – and rhythm in par­tic­u­lar – evolved the way it did. Yet there are so many oth­er impor­tant aspects to this sto­ry: the role of women instru­men­tal­ists in the pri­vate spaces of Mughal life in the 18th cen­tu­ry, and their grad­ual dis­ap­pear­ance in the 19th cen­tu­ry; colo­nial­ism; the sta­tus and influ­ence of ancient texts; print­ing tech­nol­o­gy and the dis­sem­i­na­tion of new ped­a­gog­i­cal texts in the late 19th cen­tu­ry – to name but a few.

– What are some of the inter­est­ing sources to con­sid­er in order to under­stand the evo­lu­tion of prac­tices and rhyth­mic rep­re­sen­ta­tions of Hindustani music?

Northern India has always been open to cul­tur­al exchange, and this was espe­cial­ly true under the Mughals. It is imper­a­tive that we under­stand who trav­elled to the courts, from where, and what they played. It is equal­ly impor­tant to under­stand the writ­ten mate­ri­als avail­able as well as the intel­lec­tu­al dis­cours­es of the time, for knowl­edge of music was cru­cial to Mughal eti­quette. Thus, to know that the high­ly influ­en­tial music trea­tise Kitāb al-adwār, by the 13th cen­tu­ry the­o­rist Safi al-Din al-Urmawi al-Baghdadi was wide­ly avail­able in India both in Arabic and Persian trans­la­tion, and that copies were in the col­lec­tion of Delhi nobles from the 17th cen­tu­ry onwards, helps us to under­stand why Indian rhythm was explained using the prin­ci­ples of Arabic prosody in the late 18th cen­tu­ry. I have argued that, as applied to music, Arabic prosody was a more pow­er­ful tool than the tra­di­tion­al meth­ods of Sanskrit prosody, and thus it was more effec­tive in describ­ing the changes that were occur­ring in rhyth­mic thought and prac­tice in that period.

This ethno-historical research some­times clash­es with the beliefs of cer­tain musi­cians and researchers, espe­cial­ly on ques­tions of the age and “authen­tic­i­ty” of tra­di­tions. Do you think the younger gen­er­a­tions are more inclined to accept the obvi­ous facts of the com­plex nature of musi­cal tra­di­tions made up of mul­ti­ple con­tri­bu­tions and in per­pet­u­al transformation?

Some are, but some are not. There has always been a small num­ber of schol­ars in India who con­duct valu­able, evidence-based research on music. Yet it dis­ap­points me to note there are many more that rely on the regur­gi­ta­tion and prop­a­ga­tion of unfound­ed, unschol­ar­ly opin­ion. What per­haps sur­pris­es me most is the lack of rig­or­ous schol­ar­ly train­ing in Indian music col­leges and the per­sis­tence of dis­proven or dis­cred­it­ed ideas and infor­ma­tion in spite of so much excel­lent pub­lished research to the contrary.

Fig 4: James Kippen, University of Toronto, 2017. Photo by James Kippen.

– Since the 1990s, one notices the strength­en­ing of a Hindu nation­al­ism with­in Indian soci­ety. Have you not­ed a par­tic­u­lar impact on the world of Hindustani music and on research?

This is a com­plex and sen­si­tive top­ic. Hindu nation­al­ism is not new, far from it, and as I demon­strat­ed in my book on Gurudev Patwardhan, it formed a sig­nif­i­cant part of the ratio­nale for the life and work of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar in the ear­ly 20th cen­tu­ry. As many schol­ars have point­ed out, it had roots in colo­nial­ism, and devel­oped as an anti-colonial move­ment focussed on Hindu iden­ti­ty pol­i­tics. That nar­ra­tive, based on invent­ed notions of a glo­ri­ous Hindu past, down­played the con­tri­bu­tions of Mughal cul­ture and the great lin­eages of Muslim musi­cians (not to men­tion women), and Indian Muslim iden­ti­ty with­in the sphere of music has suf­fered a decline ever since. Scholars have tak­en note of this dynam­ic and have attempt­ed to trace some of the coun­ternar­ra­tives that have hith­er­to been ignored, such as Max Katz’s excel­lent book Lineage of Loss (Wesleyan University Press, 2017) about an impor­tant fam­i­ly of Muslim scholar-musicians, the so-called Shāhjahānpūr-Lucknow gharānā. I sus­pect that a moti­va­tion­al force in much mod­ern schol­ar­ship on music in India is the desire not to omit impor­tant cul­tur­al nar­ra­tives but to ani­mate them and frame them with­in the grand sweep of South Asia’s history.

– Following on from Rebecca Stewart’s work, you too have high­light­ed the com­plex inter­weav­ing of rhyth­mic and met­ric approach­es in tablā play­ing by show­ing that it results from var­i­ous cul­tur­al con­tri­bu­tions which have fol­lowed one anoth­er over time. With the inten­si­fi­ca­tion of glob­al cul­tur­al exchanges since the end of the 20th cen­tu­ry, have you observed one or more evolv­ing trends in tablā playing?

Since the inclu­sion of tablā in pop music in the 1960s, the excit­ing jazz fusion of John McLaughlin’s group Shakti in the 1970s, and the ubiq­ui­ty of tablā ever since in music of every kind, it seems only nat­ur­al that tablā play­ers the world over should explore and exper­i­ment with its mag­i­cal sounds. Zakir Hussain has led the way in demon­strat­ing the flex­i­bil­i­ty and adapt­abil­i­ty of these drums, and the thrilling, vis­cer­al veloc­i­ty of its rhyth­mic pat­terns. As for tablā with­in the con­text of Hindustani con­cert music, I have noticed that there are many who attempt to inject that same sense of excite­ment, enhanced increas­ing­ly, it seems, by ampli­fi­ca­tion so loud that it dis­torts the sound and beats the audi­ence’s eardrums into sub­mis­sion. I would go so far as to say that this has unfor­tu­nate­ly become the norm.

In this regard, I count myself as some­thing of a purist who longs for a return to a prac­tice where the tablā play­er main­tains a sub­tle, under­stat­ed yet sup­port­ive role, com­ple­ments the mate­r­i­al pre­sent­ed by the soloist, and is mod­est and not over­pow­er­ing when invit­ed to con­tribute a short flour­ish or cameo solo. By the same token, I crave a return to tablā solos that are packed with con­tent rather than “sound effects.” By “con­tent,” I mean tra­di­tion­al, char­ac­ter­ful com­po­si­tions fea­tur­ing spe­cialised tech­niques, whose com­posers are named and thus hon­oured. And yet it is painful­ly obvi­ous that such “con­tent” is not reach­ing many younger play­ers these days.

Ethnomusicology

– As men­tioned, your research high­lights the impor­tance of his­tor­i­cal sources as well as the con­sid­er­a­tion of broad­er phe­nom­e­na such as Orientalism or Nationalism in order to under­stand Indian musi­cal prac­tices in the present. At the same time, you are very atten­tive to the intense cur­rent tran­scul­tur­al phe­nom­e­na and to the need to com­pre­hend them. In the pro­fes­sion, the con­cept of “eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy” does not always achieve con­sen­sus. What is your posi­tion with regard to this name and the sub­ject of this dis­ci­pline at the start of the 21st century?

I have nev­er been par­tic­u­lar­ly com­fort­able with the label “eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy.” As John Blacking used to say, all music is “eth­nic music,” and there­fore there should be no dis­tinc­tion between stud­ies of tablā, game­lan, or hip-hop and those of Bach, Beethoven, or Brahms. We all engage in a “dis­course on music”: in oth­er words, “musi­col­o­gy.” The advan­tage of terms like the “anthro­pol­o­gy” or “soci­ol­o­gy” of music is that they imply a broad­er slate of the­o­ret­i­cal and method­olog­i­cal approach­es that remind us that music is a social fact. Yet we must recog­nise that the purview of eth­no­mu­si­co­log­i­cal stud­ies has evolved, and nowa­days far greater atten­tion is paid to phe­nom­e­na like noise or the mun­dane sounds of every­day life. Therefore – with­out wish­ing to sound too cyn­i­cal – although in some quar­ters the term “sound stud­ies” is treat­ed with a degree of con­tempt, per­haps that very gen­er­al term is the most hon­est and accu­rate def­i­n­i­tion of what we (all of us) do. However, I acknowl­edge that it would be a shame to reject the term “music” alto­geth­er, and so I could imag­ine eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy, musi­col­o­gy, and music the­o­ry com­ing togeth­er under the rubric “music and sound studies.”

Teaching

– After a short peri­od in Belfast, you taught in Toronto. Can you tell us about your teach­ing experience?

Yes, Toronto is a won­der­ful city, and by most accounts it is the most multi-cultural city on this plan­et. It offers a very rich and stim­u­lat­ing musi­cal environment.

 Miecyzslaw Kolinski taught at the University of Toronto from 1966 until 1978. His eth­no­mu­si­co­log­i­cal inter­ests were shaped by his train­ing under Hornbostel and Sachs, and by the world­view shared by so many of the ear­ly giants of our dis­ci­pline. He pub­lished on the sci­en­tif­ic basis of har­mo­ny and melody, and devel­oped meth­ods for cross-cultural analy­sis – an approach emphat­i­cal­ly reject­ed in my own train­ing with John Blacking who argued vehe­ment­ly for cul­tur­al rel­a­tivism, much as it was at odds with Tim Rice’s train­ing at the University of Washington. Tim was hired in 1974 and left for UCLA in 1987. Like me dur­ing my ear­ly days, Tim strug­gled to per­suade col­leagues of the impor­tance of the eth­no­mu­si­co­log­i­cal approach and the need to treat our dis­ci­pline with the respect it deserved and the resources it required. We both fought hard. Tim intro­duced a pro­gram that came to be known under my watch as the World Music Ensembles, and I acquired a Balinese game­lan in 1993, which was taught by my wife, eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gist Dr Annette Sanger, for­mer­ly a col­league of John Blacking. Moreover, both Tim and I suc­ceed­ed in draw­ing eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy class­es fur­ther into the core of the cur­ricu­lum to ensure that all music stu­dents, what­ev­er their inter­ests, were exposed to our approach and under­stood the val­ue and impor­tance of a socially-grounded view of all music. One ini­tia­tive I cre­at­ed was a year-long intro­duc­to­ry course called Music as Culture which for a few years I co-taught with a musi­col­o­gy col­league: we alter­nat­ed our pre­sen­ta­tions, illus­trat­ing and cross-referencing our mate­r­i­al and obser­va­tions from the Western canon and the vast world of music beyond. Later incar­na­tions of this course includ­ed our flag­ship Introduction to Music & Society. Essentially mod­u­lar in approach, the cho­sen themes shift­ed and adapt­ed over time to reflect more con­tem­po­rary con­cerns, includ­ing music and iden­ti­ty, reli­gious expe­ri­ence, migra­tion, gen­der, heal­ing, and sound studies.

I devised and taught a vari­ety of cours­es dur­ing my time: Hindustani music; Music & Islam; Theory & Method in Ethnomusicology; The Beatles; Anthropology of Music; Fieldwork; Music, Colonialism & Postcolonialism; Rhythm & Metre in Cross-Cultural Perspective; Transcription, Notation & Analysis, etc. I worked with the South Asian com­mu­ni­ty in Toronto to put on con­certs by vocal­ist Pandit Jasraj that drew spon­sor­ship that gen­er­at­ed healthy schol­ar­ships for stu­dents study­ing Hindustani music. I helped insti­tute an Artist-in-Residence pro­gram, invit­ing musi­cians from all over the world to spend a term with us teach­ing and per­form­ing. I helped to over­haul our musicology-oriented grad­u­ate pro­grammes and intro­duced an MA and PhD in eth­no­mu­si­col­o­gy. But per­haps the two achieve­ments of which I am most proud are first­ly the many won­der­ful doc­tor­al stu­dents I men­tored, many of whom have them­selves gone on pur­sue to careers in acad­e­mia, and sec­ond­ly my suc­cess in expand­ing our rep­re­sen­ta­tion from a sin­gle fac­ul­ty posi­tion to four full-time posi­tions in ethnomusicology.

– What is your posi­tion with­in the Lucknow gharānā?

I have great­ly enjoyed learn­ing and play­ing tablā in my life, and I con­sid­er myself extreme­ly for­tu­nate to have had such a close and pro­duc­tive asso­ci­a­tion with one of the most remark­able tablā play­ers in his­to­ry: Afaq Hussain. I am blessed with a good mem­o­ry and there­fore still have in my head a vast reper­toire of won­der­ful com­po­si­tions dat­ing all the way back to the ear­ly mem­bers of the Lucknow lin­eage who flour­ished in the late 18th and ear­ly 19th cen­turies. I am par­tic­u­lar­ly inter­est­ed in tech­nique, and have spent a good deal of time study­ing the mechan­ics of play­ing. However, I am first and fore­most a schol­ar, and in prac­ti­cal mat­ters I have no illu­sions about being any­thing more than a tablā hob­by­ist. Indeed, my inter­est in play­ing has pro­vid­ed me with extra­or­di­nary insights into the instru­ment and its history.

As for my place or role with­in the Lucknow gharānā, I would say two things. Firstly, I con­tin­ue to be part of the exchange of ideas and reper­toire with my peers along­side whom I stud­ied tablā and who now are, like me, senior fig­ures with­in the sil­si­la, the direct teach­ing lin­eage of Afaq Hussain. I am con­sid­ered by them to be knowl­edge­able: an author­i­ty, if you will. On occa­sions I am asked if I remem­ber a rare com­po­si­tion over which there has been some debate, and some­times I intro­duce into our dia­logue infor­ma­tion and ques­tions aris­ing from my research that spark a live­ly inter­est. For exam­ple, Afaq Hussain’s son Ilmas Hussain and I have been work­ing togeth­er to res­ur­rect the note­books of his great-grandfather Abid Hussain, and place them in the con­text not only of his tra­di­tion but also of the ear­ly years of Lucknow’s Bhatkhande College where Abid Hussain served as the first pro­fes­sor of tablā in the late 1920s and ear­ly 1930s. Secondly, I believe that my work has brought greater atten­tion to the Lucknow lin­eage. When I arrived at Afaq Hussain’s doorstep in January 1981 he was frankly at a low ebb in his life – psy­cho­log­i­cal­ly and finan­cial­ly – and much about the future was uncer­tain. Other for­eign stu­dents fol­lowed my lead and joined an ever-growing num­ber of Indian dis­ci­ples who came to learn. My book, The Tabla of Lucknow, as well as oth­er facets of my research helped to bring nation­al and inter­na­tion­al atten­tion to Afaq Hussain, his son Ilmas, and their entire tradition.

When I came to Toronto I made a deci­sion not to teach tablā out­side of my duties at the University of Toronto, since I did not wish to risk depriv­ing local tablā play­ers (of whom there were sev­er­al very good ones) of the oppor­tu­ni­ty to earn income. Within the uni­ver­si­ty itself, I did run occa­sion­al work­shops and cours­es for stu­dents, plus indi­vid­ual lessons, and some of them (par­tic­u­lar­ly per­cus­sion­ists) became quite com­pe­tent players.

List of publications

Books               

2006                   Gurudev’s Drumming Legacy: Music, Theory and Nationalism in the Mrdang aur Tabla Vadanpaddhati of Gurudev Patwardhan. Aldershot: Ashgate (SOAS Musicology Series).

2005                   The Tabla of Lucknow: A Cultural Analysis of a Musical Tradition. New Delhi: Manohar (New edi­tion with new preface).

1988                   The Tabla of Lucknow: A Cultural Analysis of a Musical Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology).

Edited books   

2013                   with Frank Kouwenhoven, Music, Dance and the Art of Seduction. Delft: Eburon Academic Publishers.

Edited jour­nals       

1994-1996        Bansuri, vol­umes 11-13 (A year­ly jour­nal devot­ed to the music and dance of India, pub­lished by Raga Mala Performing Arts of Canada).

Articles, chap­ters in books

Forthcoming     “Weighing ‘The Assets of Pleasure’: Interpreting the Theory and Practice of Rhythm and Drumming in the Sarmāya-i ‘Ishrat, a Pivotal 19th Century Text” in Katherine Schofield, ed.: Hindustani Music Between Empires: Alternative Histories, 1748-1887. Publisher TBA.

Forthcoming     “An Extremely Nice, Fine and Unique Drum: A Reading of Late Mughal and Early Colonial Texts and Images on Hindustani Rhythm and Drumming” in Katherine Schofield, Julia Byl et David Lunn, eds: Paracolonial Soundworlds: Music and Colonial Transitions in South and Southeast Asia. Publisher TBA.

2021                   “Ethnomusicology at the Faculty of Music, University of Toronto.” MUSICultures (Journal of the Canadian Society for Traditional Music): Vol.48.

2020                   “Rhythmic Thought and Practice in the Indian Subcontinent” in Russell Hartenberger & Ryan McClelland, eds: The Cambridge Companion to Rhythm. Cambridge University Press: 241-60.

2019                   “Mapping a Rhythmic Revolution Through Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Sources on Rhythm and Drumming in North India” in Wolf, Richard K., Stephen Blum, & Christopher Hasty, eds: Thought and Play in Musical Rhythm: Asian, African, and Euro-American Perspectives. Oxford University Press: 253-72.

2013                   “Introduction” in Frank Kouwenhoven & James Kippen, eds: Music, Dance and the Art of Seduction. Delft: Eburon Academic Publishers: i-xix.

2010                   “The History of Tabla” in Joep Bor, Françoise ‘Nalini’ Delvoye, Jane Harvey and Emmie te Nijenhuis, eds: Hindustani Music, Thirteenth to Twentieth Centuries. New Delhi: Manohar: 459-78.

2008                   “Working with the Masters” in Gregory Barz and Timothy Cooley, eds:Shadows in the Field: New Perspectives for Fieldwork in Ethnomusicology (2nd revised edi­tion). Oxford University Press: 125–40.

2007                   “The Tal Paddhati of 1888: An Early Source for Tabla.” Journal of The Indian Musicological Society, 38: 151–239.

2003                   “Le rythme: Vitalité de l’Inde.” Gloire des princes, louange des dieux: Patrimoine musi­cal de l’Hindoustan du XIVe au XXe siè­cle. Paris: Cité de la musique et Réunion des Musées Nationaux 2003:152–73.

2002                   “Wajid Revisited: A Reassessment of Robert Gottlieb’s Tabla Study, and a new Transcription of the Solo of Wajid Hussain Khan of Lucknow.” Asian Music, 33, 2: 111–74.

2001                   “Folk Grooves and Tabla Tals.” ECHO: a music-centered jour­nal.  III: 1 (Spring 2001).

2000                   “Hindustani Tala.” Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 5, South Asia: The Indian Subcontinent. New York: Garland Publishing: 110–37.

1997                   “The Musical Evolution of Lucknow” in Violette Graff, dir., Lucknow: Memories of a City. New Delhi: Oxford University Press: 181–95.

1996                   “A la recherche du temps musi­cal.” Temporalistes, 34: 11-22

1994                   “Computers, Composition, and the Challenge of ‘New Music’ in Modern India.” Leonardo Music Journal, 4: 79–84. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00143124

1992                   “Tabla Drumming and the Human-Computer Interaction.” The World of Music, 34, 3: 72–98.

1992                   “Music and the Computer: Some Anthropological Considerations.” Interface, 21, 3-4: 257–62.

1992                   “Where Does The End Begin ? Problems in Musico-Cognitive Modelling.” Minds & Machines, 2, 4: 329–44.

1992                   “Identifying Improvisation Schemata with QAVAID” in Walter B. Hewlett & Eleanor Selfridge-Field, eds: Computing in Musicology: An International Directory of Applications, Volume 8. Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities:115–19.

1992                   “Bol Processor Grammars” in M. Balaban, K. Ebcioglu, & O. Laske, eds: Understanding AI with Music, AAAI Press: 367–400. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00256386

1992                   with Bernard Bel “Modelling Music with Grammars: Formal Language Representation in the Bol Processor” in A. Marsden & A. Pople, eds: Computer Representations and Models in Music. London, Academic Press: 207–38. https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00004506

1991                   with Bernard Bel “From Word-Processing to Automatic Knowledge Acquisition: A Pragmatic Application for Computers in Experimental Ethnomusicology” in Ian Lancashire, ed.: Research in Humanities Computing I: Papers from the 1989 ACH-ALLC Conference, Oxford University Press: 238–53.

1990                   “Music and the Computer: Some Anthropological Considerations” in B. Vecchione & B. Bel, eds: Le Fait Musical – Sciences, Technologies, Pratiques, pré­fig­u­ra­tion des actes du col­loque Musique et Assistance Informatique, CRSM-MIM, Marseille, France, 3-6 Octobre: 41–50.

1990                   “In Memoriam: Afaq Husain (1930-1990).” Ethnomusicology 34, 3: 429–30.

1990                   “In Memoriam: John Blacking (1928-1990).” Ethnomusicology 34, 2: 263–6.

1989                   “Changes in the Social Status of Tabla Players.” Journal of the Indian Musicological Society, 20, 1 & 2: 37–46.

1989                   “Can a Computer Help Resolve the Problem of Ethnographic Description?” Anthropological Quarterly, 62, 3: 131–44. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00275429

1989                   with Bernard Bel “The Identification and Modelling of a Percussion ‘Language’, and the Emergence of Musical Concepts in a Machine-Learning Experimental Set-Up.” Computers and the Humanities, 23, 3: 199–214. https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00004505

1988                   with Bernard Bel “Un mod­èle d’inférence gram­mat­i­cale appliquée à l’apprentissage à par­tir d’exemples musi­caux.” Neurosciences et Sciences de l’Ingénieur, 4e Journées CIRM, Luminy, 3–6 Mai 1988. 

1987                   “An Ethnomusicological Approach to the Analysis of Musical Cognition.” Music Perception 5, 2: 173–95.

1987                   with Annette Sanger “Applied Ethnomusicology: the Use of Balinese Gamelan in Recreational and Educational Music Therapy.” British Journal of Music Education 4, 1: 5–16.

1986                   with Annette Sanger “Applied Ethnomusicology: the Use of Balinese Gamelan in Music Therapy.” International Council for Traditional Music (UK Chapter) Bulletin, 15: 25–28.

1986                   “Computational Techniques in Musical Analysis.” Bulletin of Information on Computing and Anthropology (University of Kent at Canterbury), 4: 1–5.

1985                   “The Dialectical Approach: a Methodology for the Analysis of Tabla Music.” International Council for Traditional Music (UK Chapter) Bulletin, 12: 4–12.

1984                   “Linguistic Study of Rhythm: Computer Models of Tabla Language.” International Society for Traditional Arts Research Newsletter, 2: 28–33.

1984                   “Listen Out for the Tabla.” International Society for Traditional Arts Research Newsletter, 1: 13–14.

Reviews           

2012                   Elliott, Robin and Gordon E. Smith, eds: Music Traditions, Cultures and Contexts, Wilfrid Laurier University Press,  in “Letters in Canada 2010”, University of Toronto Quarterly, 81: 3:779–80.

2006                   McNeil, Adrian Inventing the Sarod: A Cultural History. Calcutta: Seagull Press, 2004. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 38: 133–35.

1999                   Myers, Helen, Music of Hindu Trinidad: Songs from the India Diaspora. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. Notes: 427–29.

1999                   Marshall, Wolf, The Beatles Bass. Hal Leonard Corporation, 1998. Beatlology, 5.

1997                   Widdess, Richard, The Ragas of Early Indian Music: Music, Modes, Melodies, and Musical Notations from the Gupta Period to c.1250. Oxford Monographs on Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 117, 3: 587.

1994                   Rowell, Lewis, Music and Musical Thought in Early India. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology, edit­ed by Philip V. Bohlman and Bruno Nettl. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1992. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 114, 2: 313.

1992                   CD: review “Bengal: chants des ‘fous’”, par Georges Luneau & Bhaskar Bhattacharyya, and “Inde du sud: musiques rit­uelles et théâtre du Kerala”, par Pribislav Pitoëff. Asian Music 23, 2:181–84.

1992                   Witmer, Robert, ed.: “Ethnomusicology in Canada: Proceedings of the First Conference on Ethnomusicology in Canada.” (CanMus Documents, 5) Toronto, Institute for Canadian Music, 1990. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 24: 170–71.

1992                   Neuman, Daniel M. The Life of Music in North India: The Organization of an Artistic Tradition. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1990. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 112, 1: 171.

1988                   Qureshi, Regula Burckhardt. Sufi Music of India and Pakistan: Sound, Context and Meaning in the Qawwali. Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology. Cambridge: CUP, 1986. International Council for Traditional Music (UK Chapter) Bulletin, 20: 40–45.

1986                   Wade, Bonnie C. Khyal: Creativity with­in North India’s Classical Music Tradition. Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology. Cambridge: CUP. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 144–46.

Recordings

1999                   Honouring Pandit Jasraj at Convocation Hall, University of Toronto. 2 CD set. Foundation for the Indian Performing Arts, FIPA002.

1995                   Pandit Jasraj Live at the University of Toronto. 2 CD set. Foundation for the Indian Performing Arts, FIPA001.

Liner notes

2009                   Mohan Shyam Sharma (pakhavaj): Solos in Chautal and Dhammar. India Archive Music CD, New York.

2007                   Anand Badamikar (tabla): Tabla Solo in Tintal. India Archive Music (IAM•CD 1084), New York.

2002                   Pandit Shankar Ghosh: Tabla Solos in Nasruk Tal and Tintal. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1054), New York.

2001                   Shujaat Khan, Sitar: Raga Bilaskhani Todi & Raga Bhairavi. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1046), New York.

1998                   Pandit Bhai Gaitonde: Tabla Solo in Tintal. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1034), New York.

1995                   Ustad Amjad Ali Khan: Rag Bhimpalasi & Rag “Tribute to America”. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1019), New York.

1994                   Ustad Nizamuddin Khan: Tabla Solo in Tintal. CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD1014), New York.

1992                   Rag Bageshri & Rag Zila Kafi, played by Tejendra Narayan Majumdar (sar­od) and Pandit Kumar Bose (tabla). CD, India Archive Recordings (IAM•CD 1008), New York.

Obituaries

1990                   “In Memoriam: Afaq Husain (1930-1990).” Ethnomusicology 34, 3: 429–30.

1990                   “In Memoriam: John Blacking (1928-1990).” Ethnomusicology 34, 2: 263–6.


➡ A new ver­sion of Bol Processor com­pli­ant with var­i­ous sys­tems (MacOS, Windows, Linux…) is under devel­op­ment. We invite soft­ware design­ers to join the team and con­tribute to the devel­op­ment of the core appli­ca­tion and its client appli­ca­tions. Please join the BP open dis­cus­sion forum and/or the BP devel­op­ers list to stay in touch with work progress and dis­cus­sions of relat­ed the­o­ret­i­cal issues.

Towards a standalone application

We are look­ing for a suit­able plat­form to com­pile stand­alone ver­sions of Bol Processor BP3.

Currently, Bol Processor BP3 is the asso­ci­a­tion of a con­sole (writ­ten in C lan­guage) and a set of PHP/HTML/CSS/Javascript files work­ing as its inter­face. A con­sole ver­sion of Csound may also be attached. Check page Bol Processor ‘BP3’ and its PHP inter­face for instal­la­tion details.

This all works beau­ti­ful­ly in a design com­pat­i­ble with sev­er­al 64-bit sys­tems: MacOS, Linux and Windows. However it requires the instal­la­tion of an Apache+PHP pack­age to run the inter­face. (We are cur­rent­ly using the free-of-charge ver­sion of MAMP to devel­op BP3’s inter­face on Mac computers.)

The next step is to cre­ate a stand­alone appli­ca­tion replac­ing the web brows­er and its PHP/HTML/CSS files. The appli­ca­tion will have Linux, MacOS and Windows implementations.

A num­ber of plat­forms have been devel­oped dur­ing the past two decades for build­ing desk­top appli­ca­tions emu­lat­ing the behav­iour of a web brows­er. Most of these seem to be aban­doned, or at least not updat­ed for years, but we have a strong con­fi­dence that PHP Desktop will be eli­gi­ble for this process.

We urgent­ly need to assess the abil­i­ty of PHP Desktop (in its cur­rent Linux imple­men­ta­tion) to com­pile a stand­alone ver­sion of Bol Processor’s inter­face. We plan to hire a pro­gram­mer for this par­tic­u­lar task. Please con­tact us to dis­cuss terms of collaboration.

Below is a list of require­ments for a com­pi­la­tion of the PHP/HTML/CSS/Javascript inter­face. Please pro­vide links to alter­nate solu­tions in com­ments at the bot­tom of this page, or pri­vate­ly via the Contact page.

Requirements

  1. Display a HTML/PHP page using links to its CSS file(s)
  2. Support the “require_once()” pro­ce­dure to bind sev­er­al PHP pages together
  3. Support all types of HTML “<input>” instruc­tions: fields, but­tons, check­box­es etc.
  4. Support “$_GET” and “$_POST” to han­dle forms
  5. Support PHP “open()” instruc­tion to create/update text files
  6. Support PHP “exec()” instruc­tion to send com­mands to the console
  7. Support multi-tag or multi-window work space
  8. Support Javascript “window.open()” to cre­ate pop-up windows
  9. Support HTML CANVAS graph­ics and PHP GD graphics
  10. Support HTML Audio tag to stream WAV sound files
  11. Preferably imbed­ding Chrome browser

Note that nei­ther data­bas­es nor SESSION vari­ables are used in the inter­face. Temporary data is pre­served in files auto­mat­i­cal­ly trashed when obsolete.

A glob­al vari­able “$which_system” may be set at the begin of the code to com­pile desk­top appli­ca­tions run­ning under dif­fer­ent sys­tems. Minimum sys­tem ver­sions could be: MacOS 10.14 (Mojave), Windows 10, and Linux ≥ January 2019.

Rationalizing musical time: syntactic and symbolic-numeric approaches

Bernard Bel

A con­tri­bu­tion to The Ratio Symposium, 14-16 Dec. 1992, Den Haag (The Netherlands). Published in Barlow, Clarence (ed.) The Ratio Book. Den Haag: Royal Conservatory - Institute of Sonology. 2001: 86-101. This paper is ref­er­enced on HAL ⟨hal-00134179⟩ and quot­ed in Polymetric struc­tures.

Abstract

This paper deals with var­i­ous prob­lems in quan­ti­fy­ing musi­cal time encoun­tered both in the analy­sis of tra­di­tion­al drum­ming and in computer-generated musi­cal pieces based on “sound-objects”, here­by mean­ing code sequences con­trol­ling a real-time sound processor.

In sec­tion 1 it is sug­gest­ed that syn­tac­tic approach­es may be clos­er to the intu­itions of musi­cians and musi­col­o­gists than com­mon­ly advo­cat­ed numer­ic approach­es. Further, symbolic-numeric approach­es lead to effi­cient and ele­gant solu­tions of constraint-satisfaction prob­lems rel­a­tive to sym­bol­ic and phys­i­cal dura­tions, as illus­trat­ed in sec­tions 2 and 3 respectively.

Download this paper

Polymetric structures

Polymetric expres­sions are the basic rep­re­sen­ta­tion mod­el of musi­cal data in Bol Processor. The word is a mix of polypho­ny and polyrhythm, the for­mer evok­ing super­posed streams of musi­cal events, and the lat­ter a met­ric adjust­ment of their durations.

This page illus­trates the syn­tax of sim­ple expres­sions and their inter­pre­ta­tion by the poly­met­ric expan­sion algo­rithm exposed in paper Two algo­rithms for the instan­ci­a­tion of struc­tures of musi­cal objects (Bel 1992). This process may get extreme­ly com­plex since a whole musi­cal work — e.g. Beethoven’s Fugue in B flat major — is han­dled by Bol Processor as a sin­gle poly­met­ric structure.

In this tuto­r­i­al, sim­ple notes (“C4″, “D4″ etc.) are used fol­low­ing the “English” con­ven­tion. All time-setting process­es could be illus­trat­ed with sound-objects or sim­ple notes in alter­nate con­ven­tions: “Italian/Spanish/French” or “Indian”.

Symbolic versus physical duration

Music nota­tion sys­tems (for humans) make use of sym­bol­ic rather than phys­i­cal dura­tions. Their units are beats rather than (milli)seconds.

Three quar­ter­notes on a score
in Western con­ven­tion­al music notation

In Western con­ven­tion­al music nota­tion, notes and rests are rep­re­sent­ed with par­tic­u­lar signs indi­cat­ing their rel­a­tive durations.

For instance, if the time sig­na­ture is 3/4, we will have 3 quarter-notes (crotch­ets) in a bar (see pic­ture). A half-note (min­im) lasts twice longer than a quarter-note in the same con­text. Other rel­a­tive dura­tions are expressed in the same manner.

To get the phys­i­cal dura­tion of a note we need an addi­tion­al piece of infor­ma­tion: the metronome val­ue, for instance “mm = 100″ mean­ing 100 beats (quarter-notes) per minute.

A metronome val­ue (by default 60 bpm) is declared in the set­tings file of a Grammar or Data page. With this set­ting, note “E4″ on a Bol Processor score rep­re­sents a “E” of the 4th octave played in 1 beat with phys­i­cal dura­tion 1 second.

This con­ven­tion extends to sound-objects labelled with arbi­trary names whose default dura­tions are set by the streams of MIDI events or sequences of Csound instruc­tions they are made of. Mapping sym­bol­ic to phys­i­cal time for the per­for­mance of struc­tures of sound-objects (with their met­ric and topo­log­ic prop­er­ties) is a sophis­ti­cat­ed process accom­plished by a time-setting algo­rithm. A prac­ti­cal exam­ple is dis­cussed on page Interactive impro­vi­sa­tion with sound-objects.

Polymetric expression

Typical forms of poly­met­ric expres­sions are:

  • field 1, field2 or {field 1, field2} indi­cat­ing that field1 and field2 should be super­posed and the total sym­bol­ic dura­tion should be adjust­ed to that of field1;
  • field1 • field2 or {field1 • field2} indi­cat­ing that field1 and field2 should be in sequence and the sym­bol­ic dura­tion of each field should be adjust­ed to that of field1;
  • {expres­sion} is equiv­a­lent to expres­sion.

Curled brack­ets ‘{‘ and ’}’ are required to pro­duce mul­ti­level expressions.

Periods notat­ed as bul­lets ‘’ on Data and Grammar win­dows are con­vert­ed to plain peri­ods before send­ing to the con­sole, due to its rejec­tion of some Unicode signs.

For instance, {{C4 D4, E4 F4 G4}, E5} yields the fol­low­ing time struc­ture with a metronome set to 60 beats per minute:

Item {{C4 D4, E4 F4 G4}, E5} on a sound-object graph
Duration is 2 beats as set by the first field “C4 D4

The use of the first field to set the total dura­tion is high­light­ed by the fol­low­ing exam­ples in which fields appear in a reverse order:

{C4 D4 E4, F4 G4}
Duration 3 beats
{F4 G4, C4 D4 E4}
Duration 2 beats

Rests (silences) may be notat­ed “-” for single-unit rests, or with inte­ger num­bers and ratios. The fol­low­ing shows a single-unit rest and a more com­plex one last­ing 2.5 beats:

{F4 - G4, C4 D4}
Duration 3 beats
{F4 2 1/2 G4, C4 D4}
Duration 4.5 beats
Fields in reverse order: {C4 D4, F4 2 1/2 G4}
Duration 2 beats

The same rules of time-setting apply to sequences in which com­mas are replaced with peri­ods. For instance:

Sequence F4 2 1/2 G4 • C4 D4 or {F4 2 1/2 G4 • C4 D4}
Duration is set by that of the first field “F4 2 1/2 G4
= 4.5 beats applied to the sec­ond field

Superpositions and sequences can be com­bined (even in mul­ti­level expres­sions) such as:

{F4 2 1/2 G4 • C4 D4, A4 B4, G4 A4 • F4}
Duration 9 beats = twice that of “F4 2 1/2 G4

Undetermined rests

Undetermined rests are a pow­er­ful fea­ture of poly­met­ric expres­sions used to avoid uneasy cal­cu­la­tions. The poly­met­ric expan­sion algo­rithm cal­cu­lates (sym­bol­ic) dura­tions pro­duc­ing the least com­plex expression.

They may be notat­ed “” or “_rest” in Data or Grammars.

Since the con­sole does not rec­og­nize this Unicode sym­bol, it is rewrit­ten as “_rest” by the PHP interface.

Let us start with a triv­ial exam­ple. In {C4 D4 E4, … F4 G4}, unde­ter­mined rest “” will be replaced by a single-unit rest:

{C4 D4 E4, … F4 G4}
= {C4 D4 E4, _rest F4 G4}

This solu­tion pro­duces the sim­plest poly­met­ric expres­sion. The same sim­ple case is that of {… C4 D4 E4, F4 G4}:

{… C4 D4 E4, F4 G4}
= {_rest C4 D4 E4, F4 G4}

If a field of the poly­met­ric expres­sion con­tains sev­er­al unde­ter­mined rests, these are assigned equal dura­tions — in such a way that the com­plex­i­ty of the struc­ture remains min­i­mal. Consider for instance {… C4 D4 … E4, A4 F4 G4}:

{… C4 D4 … E4, A4 F4 G4}
= {_rest C4 D4 _rest E4, A4 F4 G4}

An unde­ter­mined rest may even be assigned dura­tion 0 in case this yields a sim­pler expres­sion. For instance, in {… C4 D4 … E4, F4 G4} dura­tion 0 yields a “three in two” polyrhythm where­as dura­tion 1 would yield “five in two”. The cri­te­ri­on for eval­u­at­ing com­plex­i­ty is get­ting the low­est com­mon mul­ti­ple (LCM) of the num­bers of units in each field, in effect 6 against 10. Therefore the solu­tion is:

{… C4 D4 … E4, A4 F4 G4}

Every field of a poly­met­ric expres­sion may con­tain unde­ter­mined rests. Consider for instance {… C4 D4 E4, A4 B4 F4 … G4}. Here, again, assign­ing dura­tion zero to each unde­ter­mined rest yields the sim­plest struc­ture since “four in three” (LCM = 12) is a bet­ter trade-off than “five in four” (LCM = 20).

{… C4 D4 E4, A4 B4 F4 … G4}

A more com­plex struc­ture is assigned to {C4 D4 E4, A4 B4 F4 … G4 A4, C5 … D5} with rests of 1 unit in the sec­ond and third fields. The LCM of 3 and 6 is 6, which is the low­est val­ue achiev­able for this structure.

{C4 D4 E4, A4 B4 F4 … G4 A4, C5 … D5}

Note that there is an equiv­a­lent solu­tion in terms of com­plex­i­ty: assign­ing dura­tion 0 to the rest in the third field. When sev­er­al solu­tions are valid, the algo­rithm selects in pri­or­i­ty the one con­tain­ing the fewest null-duration rests.

A sim­i­lar case is {C4 D4 E4, A4 B4 F4 … G4 A4, C5 … D5 E5}:

{C4 D4 E4, A4 B4 F4 … G4 A4, C5 … D5 E5}

Here, the first rest has been assigned 1 unit and the sec­ond one 3 units. This yields the LCM of 3 and 6 = 6. Another opti­mal (equiv­a­lent) solu­tion would be to assign 0 to the sec­ond rest, but it has been dis­card­ed due to the heuris­tics of avoid­ing null-duration rests.

Replacing com­mas with peri­ods yields the same struc­ture in a sequen­tial form:

C4 D4 E4 • A4 B4 F4 … G4 A4 • C5 … D5 E5
= {C4 D4 E4 • A4 B4 F4 … G4 A4 • C5 … D5 E5}
Duration of the first field “C4 D4 E4″ is applied to the 2nd and 3d ones
which makes a final count of 3 x 3 = 9 beats

Tied notes or sound-objects

Sound-objects or sim­ple notes can be con­cate­nat­ed (“tied”). Consider for instance:

C4 D4 C4 E4 C4 F4 E4

and its vari­a­tion with ties notat­ed “&”:

C4& D4 &C4& E4& &C4 F4 &E4

The time inter­val of a tied note/sound-object may cross the lim­its of (tree-shaped) poly­met­ric struc­tures. For instance:

{C4 D4}{E4{2,E4,C4,G4}}
{C4& D4}{E4 {2,E4,&C4,G4}}

The chal­lenge of han­dling tied events is dis­cussed on page Tied notes.

Real music is “polymetric”

Rules and heuris­tics asso­ci­at­ed with poly­met­ric expres­sions make sense when deal­ing with real musi­cal items. Notably, they made it pos­si­ble to import MusicXML scores and inter­pret them as Bol Processor data (read page).

Check for instance Mozart’s musi­cal dice game, this “Charles Ames” exam­ple and Harm Visser’s demos.

Further reading

Bel, Bernard. Rationalizing musi­cal time: syn­tac­tic and symbolic-numeric approach­es. In Barlow, Clarence (ed.) The Ratio Book. Den Haag: Royal Conservatory - Institute of Sonology. 2001: 86-101.

Bol Processor shares a few fea­tures, with respect to pat­tern rep­re­sen­ta­tion, with the TIDAL Pattern Language for the Live Encoding of Music (Alex McLean & Geraint Wiggins, 2010).

Tied notes

This page is for devel­op­ers of Bol Processor BP3 (read instal­la­tion). It is not a for­mal descrip­tion of algo­rithms car­ried by the con­sole’s C code, but rather an illus­tra­tion of their man­age­ment of musi­cal process­es that may be help­ful for check­ing or extend­ing algorithms.

All exam­ples are con­tained in the “ctests” fold­er of the distribution.

Example of tied notes

Let us look as mea­sures #18 to #22 of Listz’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody import­ed from a MusicXML file — read Importing MusicXML scores. The print­ed score of mea­sures #19 to #21 is the following:

Measures #19 to #21 of Listz’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody
Source: ManWithNoName in the MuseScore com­mu­ni­ty

Tied notes are vis­i­ble on this score. Slurs con­nect­ing notes at dif­fer­ent pitch­es are ignored by the Bol Processor. These could be inter­pret­ed via the _legato(x) per­for­mance con­trol, but set­ting a suit­able val­ue for ‘x’ would require a care­ful analy­sis of the con­text. Ties link the same pitch such as “Ab1″ (A flat in octave 1) at the bot­tom of the score lines. There are 3 occur­rences of tied “Ab1″ in this sec­tion, the first one start­ing at the end of mea­sure #18 and the third one end­ing in mea­sure #21.

In Bol Processor nota­tion, this frag­ment yields a sequence of poly­met­ric struc­tures. For the sake of clar­i­ty each mea­sure has been set to a sep­a­rate paragraph:

#18 {_tempo(4/3) {4,{7/4,C4,C5}{1/4,C4,F4,Ab4,C5}{7/4,C4,F4,Ab4,C5}{1/4,Db4,F4,Ab4,Db5},{7/4,G4,Bb4}9/4,{7/4,E2,C3,G3,Bb3}{1/4,F2}{7/4,C3,F3,Ab3}{1/4, Ab1&}}

#19 {_tempo(4/3) {4,{15/4,Db4,F4,Ab4,Db5}1/8{1/8,C4,Gb4,B4,Eb5},{3/4,Ab2}{3,Db3 F3 Ab3 Db4 F4 Ab4 Db5 F5 Ab5 Db6 F6 Ab6}{1/4,- Ab1&}, &Ab1 ---}

#20 {_tempo(13/10) {33/8,{1/4,Db4& Gb4& A4& Eb5&}{7/2,&Db4,&Gb4,&A4,&Eb5}1/4{1/8,Fb4,Ab4,Cb5,Fb5},{3/4,Ab2}{13/4,Eb3 Gb3 A3 C4 G4 Bb4 Eb5 Gb5 A5 Eb6 Gb6 B6 -}{1/8, Ab1&}, &Ab1 25/8}}

#21 {_tempo(13/10) {33/8,{15/4,Fb4,Ab4,C5,Fb5}1/4{1/8,F4,Ab4,Db5,F5},{3/4,Ab2}{13/4,Fb3 Ab3 Cb4 F4 Ab4 C5 F5 Ab5 Cb6 Fb6 Ab6 Cb7 -}{1/8,B1&}, &Ab1 25/8}}

#22 {_tempo(4/3) {4,{7/2,F4,Ab4,Db5,F5}1/2,{3/4,B2}{13/4,F3 Ab3 Db4 F4 Ab4 Db5 F5 Ab5 Db6 F6 Ab6 Db7 -}, &B1 ---}}

The 3 occur­rences of tied “Ab1″ and “B1″ are shown in col­ors. “Ab1&” is the begin­ning of a tie and “&Ab1″ the end (of the same col­or). Longer ties would occa­sion­al­ly require sequences such as “Ab1&” + “&Ab1&”+ “&Ab1″.

These ties merge the (sym­bol­ic) time inter­vals of the begin­ning and end­ing occur­rence. For instance, score “C4& &C4″ could be replaced with “C4 _ ” or equiv­a­lent­ly “{2, C4}”. The merg­ing of time inter­vals takes place in pro­ce­dure FillPhaseDiagram() of file “FillPhaseDiagram.c”.

While pars­ing the com­pact poly­met­ric struc­ture for build­ing the phase table — read Complex ratios in poly­met­ric expres­sions — the algo­rithm calls GetSymbolicDuration() (in “SetObjectFeatures.c”) to cal­cu­late the sym­bol­ic dura­tion of a sound-object or sim­ple note. By default, this is easy to com­pute. Flag ignorecon­cat is set to true if the sound-object or note is not fol­lowed with a ‘&’. The dura­tion is set by prodtem­po = Prod / tem­po.

If ignorecon­cat is false, GetSymbolicDuration() looks for the next accept­able occur­rence of the note or sound object pre­ced­ed by a ‘&’. Acceptability implies the fol­low­ing conditions:

  1. The note or sound-object should be under the same MIDI chan­nel or the same Csound instrument;
  2. The date of the next occur­rence should be greater than the on-setting date.

These con­di­tions are easy to trace in the exam­ple. For instance, “A1b&” can­not be paired with “&A1b” because the lat­ter occurs at an ear­li­er date. The next valid occur­rence is “&A1b”. The same holds for pairs shown in oth­er col­ors. Each col­or indi­cates a match­ing pair.

Once the dura­tion has been set, the algo­rithm calls PutZeros() to fill as many columns as required for set­ting the total dura­tion of the pair of tied notes — read Complex ratios in poly­met­ric expres­sions.

In addi­tion, when “&A1b” is parsed lat­er, it should be ignored because the time span of the note has already been set by call­ing GetSymbolicDuration() and PutZeros() at the time of pars­ing “A1b&”. Skipping these pro­ce­dures is ensured by flag foundend­con­cate­na­tion.

Graphic display

The fol­low­ing is a sound-object graph of mea­sures #20 to #21 on which the bor­ders of inter­vals in tied notes are marked with dashed lines. The bor­ders of “Ab1& … &AB1″ (red col­or) are self-explanatory when com­pared with the musi­cal score dis­played above: each occur­rence is an instance of “{1/8, Ab1&} &Ab1″.

Symbolic dura­tions can be checked on phys­i­cal time: since the tem­po is 13/10, the first part has a phys­i­cal dura­tion 1/8 x 10 / 13 = 0.09 sec­ond and the sec­ond part 10/13 = 0.77 s.

Measures #20-21 of Listz’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody on a sound-object graph

At the end of mea­sure #21 is the begin­ning of note “B1&” tied to its occur­rence “&B1″ in mea­sure #22. The bor­der is marked by a blue dashed line. The piano roll of mea­sures #21-22 dis­plays this bind­ing of “B1″:

Measures #21-22 of Listz’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody on a piano roll
Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody inter­pret­ed by the Bol Processor on a Pianoteq physical-model syn­the­siz­er
Source: ManWithNoName in the MuseScore community

Arpeggios

Arpeggio on chord
{Db, Gb, Bbb, Eb}
Bbb” is inter­pret­ed as “A”.

Borders marked as green dashed lines belong to poly­met­ric expres­sion {1/4,Db4& Gb4& A4& Eb5&}{7/2,&Db4,&Gb4,&A4,&Eb5}, the inter­pre­ta­tion of an arpeg­gio on the chord at the begin­ning of mea­sure #20. This inter­pre­ta­tion is con­struct­ed while import­ing MusicXML files — read the PHP code in file “_musicxml.php”.

A brief sequence “Db4 Gb4 A4 Eb5″ (dura­tion 1/4 beat) is played before the chord “{Db4, Gb4, A4, Eb5}” whose dura­tion is set to 7/2 beats. Each note in the sequence is tied to its occur­rence in the chord.

A sound exam­ple of arpeg­gio may be found on page Importing MusicXML scores.

More tied notes

A clear illus­tra­tion of the usage of tied notes and unde­ter­mined rests is a short musi­cal phrase bor­rowed from a tuto­r­i­al by Charles Ames, a pio­neer­ing design­er of com­po­si­tion algo­rithms. The phrase is sup­plied as a musi­cal score but its inter­pre­ta­tion requires a care­ful analy­sis of the musi­cal struc­ture, yield­ing the fol­low­ing Bol Processor score:

{{2,-{2,F#3}, _rest {1,F5,A5}}{4,{ 1/2 ‚G#3,E5,G5}{ 7/2 ‚Bb4}}, _rest { 1/4 ‚G#5&,C6,E6,B6&}{2,&G#5,&B6}}

To make things clear we need to look at the score in com­mon music nota­tion, divide it to blocks asso­ci­at­ed with vari­ables, and ulti­mate­ly write a gram­mar “-gr.Ames” for build­ing the struc­ture. Below are details of the ana­lyt­i­cal process and result­ing graphs of sound-objects and piano roll:

In this gram­mar, unde­ter­mined rests have been notat­ed “”. In its cur­rent ver­sion, the Bol Processor con­sole does not rec­og­nize Unicode sym­bol “”. Therefore, it is auto­mat­i­cal­ly con­vert­ed it to “_rest” by the PHP interface.

Undetermined rests are a pow­er­ful fea­ture of poly­met­ric expres­sions used to avoid uneasy cal­cu­la­tions. The poly­met­ric expan­sion algo­rithm cal­cu­lates (sym­bol­ic) dura­tions pro­duc­ing the least com­plex expres­sion. Read more on tuto­r­i­al Polymetric struc­tures.

Tied notes are pre­cise­ly the ones denot­ed by links on the musi­cal score. The sound ren­der­ing is:

Rendering of “-gr.Ames” with metronome mm = 60

Error tracing

The con­struc­tion of suit­able time inter­vals for tied notes depends on the com­ple­tion of pairs — e.g. “A4&” fol­lowed by “&A4″ — in the Bol Processor score. Some pairs may remain incom­plete for either reason:

  1. The musi­cal item has been sliced to chunks, using the PLAY safe (instead of PLAY) option to speed up com­pu­ta­tion, and the two parts belong to sep­a­rate chunks;
  2. An error in the import­ed MusicXML score;
  3. An error of the algo­rithm — more and more rarely.
Unbound tie(s) sig­naled in a chunk

Case (1) is lim­it­ed by the method for chunk­ing items: each chunk is designed to con­tain the same num­ber of start­ing and end­ing ties. Nonetheless this is not war­rant­ed because chunks are lim­it­ed in size.

Failure to bal­ance ties is indi­cat­ed below the PLAY safe but­ton (see picture).

Errors are list­ed in col­or on the trace of the play process. These may not induce notice­able changes in the per­for­mance. Nonetheless, we rec­om­mend to sub­mit faulty data to designers.

Below is an exam­ple of error in a MusicXML score of Beethoven’s Fugue in B flat major. A tie starts at note “Db5″ (MIDI key #73) in the begin­ning of mea­sure #573 (part 2) but it ends nowhere:

Measures #573 to 575 (part 2) of Beethoven’s Fugue in B flat major, with an unend­ing tie start­ing at “Db5

Read the frag­ment of the MusicXML score to check this incon­sis­ten­cy. There are more incon­sis­ten­cies in this score, for instance a slur start­ing on note “C4″ of mea­sure #646 (part 3) which does not end. This makes it dif­fi­cult to inter­pret slurs as lega­to.

Complex ratios in polymetric expressions

This page is for devel­op­ers of Bol Processor BP3 (read instal­la­tion). It is not a for­mal descrip­tion of algo­rithms car­ried by the con­sole’s C code, but rather an illus­tra­tion of their man­age­ment of musi­cal process­es that may be help­ful for check­ing or extend­ing algorithms.

All exam­ples are con­tained in file “-da.checkPoly” of the “ctests” fold­er in the distribution.

Syntax of silences

In Bol Processor data/grammar syn­tax, silences (rests in con­ven­tion­al music ter­mi­nol­o­gy) are rep­re­sent­ed either with an hyphen ‘-’ for one-unit dura­tion, or inte­ger ratios to spec­i­fy a more com­plex duration:

  • 4″ is a rest of 4-unit duration
  • 5/3″ is a rest of (approx­i­mate­ly) 1.666-unit duration
  • 3 1/2″ is a rest of 3.5-unit duration

For instance, “C4 C5 3/2 D5 E5″ yields the fol­low­ing piano roll with a rest of 3/2 (1.5) units start­ing on beat 2 and end­ing on beat 3.5:

Piano roll of item “C4 C5 3/2 D5 E5”

In this tuto­r­i­al we use the default metronome val­ue = 60 beats per minute.

Another sim­ple exam­ple is {3 1/2, C3 D3 B2} which is the sequence of notes “C3 D3 B2″ con­strained to total dura­tion 3 1/2 (3.5) beats. This silence is the first field of the poly­met­ric expres­sion (explained below). This yields the fol­low­ing piano roll:

or equiv­a­lent­ly the sound-object graph:

Syntax of tempo

Any sequence of sym­bols com­pli­ant with Bol Processor syn­tax is processed as a poly­met­ric expres­sion. Typical forms are:

  • field 1, field2 indi­cat­ing that field1 and field2 should be super­posed and the total dura­tion should be that of field1;
  • field1.field2 indi­cat­ing that field1 and field2 should be in sequence where the dura­tion of each field should be that of field1;
  • {expres­sion} is equiv­a­lent to expres­sion.

Brackets ‘{‘ and ’}’ are used to pro­duce mul­ti­level expressions.

A set of exam­ples of poly­met­ric expres­sions may be found on tuto­r­i­al Polymetric struc­tures.

For instance, {{C4 D4, E4 F4 G4}, E5} yields the fol­low­ing structure:

Item {{C4 D4, E4 F4 G4}, E5} on a sound-object graph

To inter­pret this struc­ture, the Bol Processor needs to insert explic­it tem­po val­ues into the expres­sion. Precisely, in this case, the most com­pact rep­re­sen­ta­tion with explic­it tem­po val­ues would be:

*1/1 {{C4 D4,*2/3 E4 F4 G4} ‚*2/1 E5}

Expressions such as “*2/3″ indi­cate that the dura­tion of each note (or sound-object) should be mul­ti­plied by 2/3 irre­spec­tive of pre­ced­ing state­ments. This means that the dura­tions of notes “E4”, “F4” and “G4” should be 2/3 sec­onds as shown on the graph.

Creating the com­pact rep­re­sen­ta­tion with its explic­it tem­po mark­ers may require recur­sive calls of a sophis­ti­cat­ed pro­ce­dure named PolyExpand() in file “Polymetric.c”.

At this stage it is impor­tant not to con­fuse notations:

  1. 2/3″ is a silence of dura­tion 2/3 beats;
  2. _tempo(2/3)” mul­ti­plies the cur­rent tem­po by 2/3. This is a rel­a­tive tem­po marker;
  3. *2/3″ sets the cur­rent dura­tions of units to 2/3 of the metronome peri­od. This is an absolute tem­po mark­er. Equivalently, “*4″ mul­ti­plies dura­tions by 4, and “*1/5″ or “/5″ divides them by 5 — where­as “1/5″ is a silence last­ing 1/5 beat.

The third syn­tax is the one used by Bol Processor’s time-setting algo­rithms. Despite its syn­tac­ti­cal­ly valid­i­ty, we do not rec­om­mend using it in gram­mars and data because it may cre­ate con­flict­ing dura­tions in poly­met­ric struc­tures. For exam­ple, {*2/1 A4 B4, *3/1 A5 B5} does not make sense because it attempts to force the first field to dura­tion 2 x 2 = 4 beats and the sec­ond field to 3 x 2 = 6 beats. The prop­er (nev­er con­flict­ing) man­ner of chang­ing a tem­po in data or gram­mars is the “_tempo(x)” per­for­mance tool.

Expanding a polymetric expression

In the pre­ced­ing para­graph, we saw {{C4 D4, E4 F4 G4}, E5} rep­re­sent­ed inter­nal­ly as *1/1 {{C4 D4,*2/3 E4 F4 G4} ‚*2/1 E5}. This inter­nal rep­re­sen­ta­tion is the most com­pact one con­tain­ing explic­it tem­po mark­ers. Therefore it the one main­tained along all steps of time-setting.

Humans may pre­fer to see a more com­pre­hen­sive rep­re­sen­ta­tion called the expand­ed poly­met­ric expres­sion:

/3 {{C4_ _ D4_ _, E4_ F4_ G4_} , E5_ _ _ _ _}

This is obtained click­ing the EXPAND but­ton on a Data page. Underline sym­bols ‘_’ rep­re­sent exten­sions of the dura­tion of the pre­ced­ing unit. These should not be con­fused with ‘-’ (silences). To make things clear, let us replace a ‘_’ with ‘-’:

/3 {{C4_ _ D4_ _, E4_ F4 - G4_}, E5_ _ _ _ _}

This yields the fol­low­ing struc­ture in which “F4” is not extended:

Item /3 {{C4_ _ D4_ _, E4_ F4 - G4_}, E5_ _ _ _ _}

The expand­ed poly­met­ric expres­sion may grow larg­er than com­pre­hen­sive to a human observ­er. In this case, only the com­pact ver­sion is returned.

In Bol Processor con­sole’s code, sound-objects (of all kinds) are iden­ti­fied by num­bers. The vari­able used to des­ig­nate them in algo­rithms is always ‘k’ or ‘kobj’. There is an option to dis­play object iden­ti­fiers on a graph which is set by con­stant SHOWEVERYTHING. If set to true, the pre­ced­ing sound-object graph would be:

Item /3 {{C4_ _ D4_ _, E4_ F4 - G4_}, E5_ _ _ _ _}
in SHOWEVERYTHING mode

Notes “C4”, “D4” etc. bear iden­ti­fiers kobj = 2, 3 etc. Identifier “0” is reserved for exten­sions ‘_’ and “1” for silences “-”, none of which is shown on the graph. An excep­tion is object #8 labelled «-» which is an out-time (null-duration) “silence” mark­ing the end of the struc­ture to facil­i­tate its syn­chro­niza­tion with the next item.

The phase diagram

Given a com­pact poly­met­ric struc­ture, time-setting algo­rithms require a table in which every col­umn is assigned a date (in phys­i­cal time). Cells of this phase dia­gram con­tain the iden­ti­fiers of sound-objects, includ­ing “0” and “1”. It is cre­at­ed by pro­ce­dure FillPhaseDiagram() in file “FillPhaseDiagram.c”.

It is easy to guess that the table would grow very large if com­pres­sion pro­ce­dures were not applied. For instance, Listz’s 14th Rhapsody would require no less than 9 x 1021 cells! The rea­son is that Bol Processor com­putes sym­bol­ic dura­tions as inte­ger ratios. A sym­bol­ic dura­tion of 5/3 will nev­er be replaced with “1.666” for two rea­sons: (1) round­ings would cumu­late as notice­able errors, and (2) we don’t know in advance how many dec­i­mals need to be kept. The phys­i­cal dura­tion of 5/3 beats depends on the metronome and the suc­ces­sion of “_tempo(x)” con­trols mod­i­fy­ing the tempo.

Let us first exam­ine a non-problematic case. The poly­met­ric expres­sion /3 {{C4_ _ D4_ _, E4_ F4 - G4_}, E5_ _ _ _ _} cre­ates the fol­low­ing phase diagram:

Phase dia­gram of
/3 {{C4_ _ D4_ _, E4_ F4 - G4_}, E5_ _ _ _ _}

In this exam­ple, if the metronome is set to 60 beats per minute the phys­i­cal dura­tion assigned to each col­umn is 1/3 sec­ond = 333 ms. When the dia­gram grows larg­er, this phys­i­cal dura­tion may decrease beyond lim­it. This is where quan­ti­za­tion is invoked. It is set to 10 mil­lisec­onds by default, which means that two events occur­ring with­in than 10 ms may be writ­ten into the same col­umn. To this effect, the com­pact poly­met­ric struc­ture is rewrit­ten using a com­pres­sion rate (Kpress) that makes it fit a phase dia­gram of suit­able size.

If the musi­cal piece lasts for 10 min­utes we’ll still get 10 x 60000 / 10 = 60000 columns in the table. Filling the phase dia­gram requires a very high com­pres­sion rate, for instance more than 5 x 1012 for Beethoven’s Fugue in B-flat major.

Adding to the dif­fi­cul­ty, the algo­rithm must take care of sequences of events falling into the same col­umn. This sit­u­a­tion is sig­naled by vari­able toofast obtained by com­par­ing the cur­rent tem­po with the max­i­mum tem­po accept­ed in the struc­ture. In the toofast case, each event is writ­ten on a new line of the table in such a way that the sequen­tial order of the stream will be respected.

Thus, we end up with 12132 lines for the phase table of Beethoven’s Fugue, in which the longest toofast stream con­tains 625 events — notes or sound-objects. These 625 events per­formed with­in a sin­gle frame of 10 ms actu­al­ly include events ‘_’, name­ly exten­sions of notes belong­ing to the stream.

Dealing with complex ratios

In Bol Processor ter­mi­nol­o­gy, an inte­ger ratio p/q is “com­plex” when either ‘p’ or ‘q’ goes beyond a lim­it which depends on the source code. The lim­it is ULONG_MAX, the max­i­mum val­ue of an unsigned long type, cur­rent­ly 18446744073709551616.

In Bol Processor’s con­sole code, ‘p’ and ‘q’ are actu­al­ly encod­ed as dou­ble floating-point num­bers whose man­tis­sa may con­tain as many dig­its as unsigned long inte­gers. Arithmetic oper­a­tions are per­formed on frac­tions. Each result­ing frac­tion is checked for com­plex­i­ty by a pro­ce­dure named Simplify() in file “Arithmetic.c”:

  1. While ‘p’ or ‘q’ is greater than ULONG_MAX, divide ‘p’ and ‘q’ by 10;
  2. Divide ‘p’ and ‘q’ by their great­est com­mon divider (GCD).

Part (1) of the Simplify() pro­ce­dure gen­er­ates round­ing errors, yet these take place on very large num­bers. Thus, the accu­ra­cy of sym­bol­ic dura­tions is main­tained through­out the com­pu­ta­tion of com­pli­cat­ed poly­met­ric structures.

Complex ratios in silences

Let us check the effect on quan­ti­za­tion by playing:

C4 C5 36001/24000 D5 E5

Ratio 36001/24000 can­not be sim­pli­fied. Nonetheless, 1/24000 beat would last 0.04 ms which is much less than the 10 ms quan­ti­za­tion. Therefore, the ratio can be approx­i­mat­ed to 36000/24000 and sim­pli­fied to 3/2. The final result is there­fore “C4 C5 3/2 D5 E5″:

Item “C4 C5 36001/24000 D5 E5” sim­pli­fied as “C4 C5 3/2 D5 E5”

Let us now con­sid­er “C4 C5 35542/24783 D5 E5″ which looks sim­i­lar giv­en that 35542/24783 (1.43) is close to 1.5. However, the com­pu­ta­tion is more com­plex… Using the 10 ms quan­ti­za­tion, the ratio is reduced to 143/100 and the com­pact poly­met­ric expres­sion is:

/1 C4 C5 /100 - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /1 D5 E5

The 143/100 silence is now rep­re­sent­ed as a unique ‘-’ (kobj = 1) fol­lowed by 142 ‘_’ (kobj = 0). This sequence is toofast because tem­po­max, the max­i­mum tem­po accept­ed here, would be ‘50’ instead of ‘100’. The com­pres­sion rate is Kpress = 2. A com­plete expla­na­tion requires the poly­met­ric algo­rithm exposed here.

The process of fill­ing the phase table is found in “FillPhaseDiagram.c”. We call ‘ip’ the index of the col­umn into which the next event will be plot­ted. In the most com­mon sit­u­a­tion, for instance writ­ing “C4 _ _” (object #2), two pro­ce­dures are invoked:

  • Plot() writes ‘2’ (kobj) into col­umn ip
  • PutZeros() writes two zeros into columns ip + 1 and ip +2.

Thus “C4 _ _” will have a sym­bol­ic dura­tion of 3 units, as expected.

The case is dif­fer­ent with a silence last­ing 143/100 because the toofast sit­u­a­tion impos­es that less than 142 ‘_’ should be insert­ed after ‘-’. To this effect, a (floating-point) vari­able part_of_ip is ini­tial­ized to 0 and gets incre­ment­ed by a cer­tain val­ue until it reach­es beyond Kpress. Then Plot() and PutZeros() are called, part_of_ip is reset and a new cycle starts… until all 142 ‘_’ of the com­pact poly­met­ric expres­sion have been read.

The incre­ment of part_of_ip in each cycle is:

part_of_ip += Kpress * tem­po­max / tempo;

In this sim­ple exam­ple, tem­po = 100, tem­po­max = 50 and Kpress =2. Therefore the incre­ment is 1 and part_of_ip will reach the val­ue of Kpress after 2 cycles. This amounts to say­ing that one in two ‘_’ will be skipped.

Incrementing ip requires a more com­pli­cat­ed process. The algo­rithm keeps track of col­umn num­bers in the table as it would be cre­at­ed with Kpress = 1. These num­bers are gen­er­al­ly much larg­er than the ones of the actu­al phase dia­gram. The large num­ber i is mapped to ip via the Class() function:

unsigned long Class(double i) {
unsigned long result;
if(Kpress < 2.) return((unsigned long)i);
result = 1L + ((unsigned long)(floor(i) / Kpress));
return(result);
}

Thus, each cycle of read­ing ‘_’ in the toofast sit­u­a­tion ends up incre­ment­ing i and then updat­ing ip via the Class(i) func­tion. The incre­ment of i is:

prodtem­po - 1

in which:

prodtem­po = Prod / tempo

Variables Prod and Kpress are cal­cu­lat­ed after cre­at­ing the com­pact poly­met­ric expres­sion. Prod is the low­est com­mon mul­ti­ple (LCM) of all val­ues of tem­po, i.e. ‘100’ in this example.

Let us use inte­gers Pclock and Qclock to define the metronome val­ue as Qclock * 60 / Pclock. If the metronome is set to its default val­ue of 60 bpm, then Pclock = Qclock = 1.

The fol­low­ing (sim­pli­fied) code cal­cu­lates Kpress and updates Prod accordingly:

Kpress = 1. + (Quantization * Qclock * Prod) / Pclock / 1000.;
if(Kpress > 1.) {
s = LCM(Prod, Kpress) / Prod;
if(s > 1. && s < 10. && Prod < 1000000.) Prod = Round(s * Prod);
s = Round(Prod / Kpress);
if(s > 10.) Prod = Kpress * s;
}

As expect­ed we get the fol­low­ing sound-object graph:

Sound-object graph of C4 35542/24783 D5.
The silence dura­tion is 35542/24783 = 1.43 beats.

A more complex structure

This is a phrase of Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody:

_tempo(80/39) {F1, C2} {2, F2} 667/480 {53/480, G1, G2} {1/2, Ab1, Ab2} {1/2, B1, B2}

The com­pact poly­met­ric expres­sion — with a few redun­dant ratios delet­ed — is:

*39/80 {F1, C2} {F2 _} *13/12800 - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ *689/12800 {G1, G2} *39/160 {Ab1, Ab2} {B1, B2}

yield­ing the fol­low­ing sound-object graph:

_tempo(80/39){F1,C2}_tempo(80/39){2,F2}667/480 {53/480,G1,G2}{1/2,Ab1,Ab2}{1/2,B1,B2}
Metronome is set to 60 beats per minute.

Let us cal­cu­late the dura­tion of the silence between “F2” and “G1” in two ways:

  1. In the source poly­met­ric expres­sion, this silence is notat­ed 667/480. Since the tem­po is 80/39, its dura­tion should be 667/480 * 39/80 = 0.67 beats (con­firmed by the graph).
  2. In the com­pact poly­met­ric expres­sion, we find one ‘-’ object fol­lowed by 666 ‘_’ pro­lon­ga­tions at speed *13/12800. The dura­tion is there­fore 667 * 13/12800 = 0.67 beats.

Following the algo­rithm step by step would be tricky because Prod = 2496100 , Kpress = 24961 and tem­po­max = Prod / Kpress = 100. Within the silence, tem­po = 985 and the incre­ment of part_of_ip is 24961 * 100 / 985 = 2 534.11167… The num­ber of cycles before part_of_ip reach­es the val­ue of Kpress is ceil(9.85) = 10. This means that 9 in 10 objects ‘_’ have been skipped.

Conclusion

These exam­ples and expla­na­tions pro­vide insights for an eas­i­er com­pre­hen­sion of code in file “FillPhaseDiagram.c” of the con­sole’s code. We hope that it will serve for future devel­op­ment or migra­tion of algorithms.

This is also a demo of the com­plex­i­ty of time cal­cu­la­tions when deal­ing with poly­met­ric struc­tures able to car­ry all details of real musi­cal works — read Importing MusicXML scores for “real life” examples.

Comparing temperaments

Images of tem­pered scales cre­at­ed by the Bol Processor

The fol­low­ing are Bol Processor + Csound inter­pre­ta­tions of Bach’s Prelude 1 in C major (BWV 846) using scales con­struct­ed with mean­tone tem­pera­ments (Asselin 2000). Names and tun­ing pro­ce­dures fol­low Asselin’s instruc­tions (pages 67-126). 

The con­struc­tion of these scales is explained on page Microtonality.

We hope to pub­lish bet­ter sound demos after receiv­ing a set of well-designed Csound instru­ments (“orc” files). This is an apol­o­gy to harp­si­chord play­ers and their designers!

Start lis­ten­ing to the piece in equal tem­pera­ment which is the most com­mon tun­ing of instru­ments in mod­ern times:

Equal tem­pera­ment (p. 123) ➡ Image

The fol­low­ing are tra­di­tion­al mean­tone tem­pera­ments, each of which has been designed at a par­tic­u­lar peri­od in response to the con­straints of musi­cal reper­toires en vogue (Asselin 2000 p. 139-180).

H.A. Kellner’s BACH (p. 101) ➡ Image
Barka in 1786 (p. 106) ➡ Image
Bethisy in 1764 (p. 121) ➡ Image
Chaumont in 1696 (p. 109) ➡ Image
Corrette in 1753 (p. 111) ➡ Image
D’Alambert-Rousseau 1752-1767 (p. 119) ➡ Image
Kirnberger II in 1771 (p. 90) ➡ Image
Kirnberger III in 1779 (p. 106) ➡ Image
Marpurg in 1756 (p. 117) ➡ Image
Pure minor thirds in 16th cen­tu­ry (p. 82) ➡ Image
Rameau en do in 1726 (p. 106) ➡ Image
Sauveur in 1701 (p. 80) ➡ Image
Tartini-Vallotti in mid. 18th cen­tu­ry (p. 104) ➡ Image
Werckmeister III in 1691 (p. 194) ➡ Image
Werckmeister IV in 1691 (p. 96) ➡ Image
Werckmeister V in 1691 (p. 199) ➡ Image
Zarlino in 1558 (p. 85) ➡ Image

The last exam­ple is Zarlino’s mean­tone tem­pera­ment which should not be con­fused with the pop­u­lar Zarlino’s “nat­ur­al scale”, an instance of just into­na­tion:

Zarlino’s “nat­ur­al scale” ➡ Image

Discussion

Comparing tem­pera­ments on a sin­gle piece is a very lim­it­ed exer­cise aimed at high­light­ing dif­fer­ences in the var­i­ous pro­pos­als and their ade­qua­cy to cre­ate a pleas­ant effect when lis­ten­ing to this par­tic­u­lar piece.

J.S. Bach’s dis­ci­ple Johann Kirnberg (1721-1723) - (source)

In real­i­ty, Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier (BWV 846–893) is a col­lec­tion of two sets of pre­ludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys. To assess the valid­i­ty of a tun­ing scheme it would there­fore be nec­es­sary to lis­ten to all pieces. Fortunately, there are clues to an opti­mal choice: Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg received infor­ma­tion from Bach’s sons and pupils and Johann Kirnberger, one of those pupils, designed a tun­ing (Kirnberger II) which he claimed to rep­re­sent his mas­ter’s idea of “well-tempered”.

Chapter VIII of Pierre-Yves Asselin’s book (2000 p. 139-180) con­tains exam­ples of musi­cal works high­light­ing the rel­e­vance of spe­cif­ic tem­pera­ments. Given that the scores of many (if not all) Baroque and clas­si­cal mas­ter­pieces are avail­able in dig­i­tal for­mat MusicXML, we may use Bol Processor’s Importing MusicXML scores to transcode them and play these excerpts with the sug­gest­ed temperaments.

Musicians inter­est­ed in con­tin­u­ing this research may use Bol Processor BP3’s beta ver­sion to process musi­cal works and cre­ate new tun­ing pro­ce­dures. Follow instruc­tions on page Bol Processor ‘BP3’ and its PHP inter­face to install BP3 and learn its basic oper­a­tion. Download and install Csound from its dis­tri­b­u­tion page.

References

Asselin, P.-Y. Musique et tem­péra­ment. Paris, 1985, repub­lished in 2000: Jobert. Soon avail­able in English.

Importing MusicXML scores

MusicXML is a very pop­u­lar XML-based file for­mat for rep­re­sent­ing Western musi­cal nota­tion. It is designed for the inter­change of scores between scorewrit­ers and oth­er musi­cal devices.

Inside a MusicXML file…

A MusicXML file con­tains all the infor­ma­tion required to dis­play a musi­cal score in Western music nota­tion. It also con­tains data which can be processed by a sound device to “play” the musi­cal score. The basic ren­der­ing may sound mechan­i­cal if it miss­es con­trol over vol­ume, veloc­i­ties, tem­po etc. which are not accu­rate­ly dis­played on print­ed scores. As such, it may be used as a tool for check­ing the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of a musi­cal work, or as a teach­ing assis­tant for deci­pher­ing scores.

Beyond their use as an exchange for­mat between score edi­tors, many MusicXML files are reworked by groups of musi­cians — such as the MuseScore com­mu­ni­ty — for the imbed­ding of inten­si­ty and tem­po state­ments. Sound exam­ples are shown below.

Importing musi­cal scores from musi­cal archives to Bol Processor makes it pos­si­ble to use them (or frag­ment of them) in gram­mars pro­duc­ing vari­a­tions, for exam­ple Mozart’s musi­cal dice game. Owing to the Csound inter­face, these musi­cal works may even be played back with spe­cif­ic tun­ings as explained on page Microtonality. The lat­ter was an incen­tive for imple­ment­ing MusicXML con­ver­sion, mak­ing it pos­si­ble to check works of the Baroque and clas­si­cal reper­toires against the diver­si­ty of mean­tone tem­pera­ments doc­u­ment­ed by historians. 

The MusicXML to Bol Processor con­vert­er is ful­ly oper­a­tional on the PHP inter­face of BP3. Follow instruc­tions on page Bol Processor ‘BP3’ and its PHP inter­face to install BP3 and learn its basic oper­a­tion. Download and install Csound from its dis­tri­b­u­tion page.

Bol Processor’s data format

The Bol Processor has its own data for­mat for rep­re­sent­ing musi­cal items aimed at pro­duc­ing sound via its MIDI or Csound inter­face. This for­mat is dis­played and saved as pure text.

The syn­tax of Bol Processor data is based on poly­met­ric struc­tures — read tuto­r­i­al on Polymetric struc­tures. A few ele­men­tary exam­ples will clar­i­fy this term:

  • {A4 B4 C5} is a sequence of three notes “A4”, “B4”, “C5” played at the metro­nom­ic tempo
  • {A4, C5, E5, A5} is a A minor chord
  • {la3, do4, mi4, la4} is the same chord in Italian/Spanish/French convention
  • {dha4, sa5, ga5, dha5} is the same chord in Indian convention
  • {C4 G4 E4, F3 C4} is a two-level struc­ture call­ing for the jux­ta­po­si­tion and time align­ment of sequences “C4 G4 E4” and “F3 C4”, which yields a polyrhyth­mic struc­ture that may be expand­ed as {C4_ G4_ E4_, F3__ C4__} in which ‘_’ are pro­lon­ga­tions of the pre­ced­ing notes.
  • {5, A4 B4 C5} is sequence “A4 B4 C5” played over 5 beats. Durations are mul­ti­plied by 5/3.
  • {7/16, F3 C4} is sequence “F3 C4” played over 7/16 beats. The dura­tion of each note is mul­ti­plied by 7/16/2 = 7/32.

Unlike score rep­re­sen­ta­tion mod­els, poly­met­ric struc­tures are recur­sive with no lim­it in their com­plex­i­ty (except the machine). A few com­plex struc­tures are dis­cussed on page Harm Visser’s exam­ples.

Why do we need to import scores?

Bol Processor’s data for­mat is alto­geth­er com­pact, com­pu­ta­tion­al and com­pre­hen­si­ble by humans. However its com­pact­ness makes it uneasy to edit com­plex poly­met­ric struc­tures. Practically, these are pro­duced by gen­er­a­tive grammars…

A gram­mar pro­duc­ing pieces of tonal music may require “build­ing blocks” extract­ed from exist­ing musi­cal works. Till now (in Bol Processor BP1 and BP2) it was pos­si­ble to map the com­put­er key­board to arbi­trary signs rep­re­sent­ing drum strokes (see the ini­tial project) or cap­ture notes in com­mon music nota­tion (three dif­fer­ent con­ven­tions). Sound-objects can also con­tain Csound scores and/or sequences of instruc­tions import­ed from MIDI files.

Things get com­plex when deal­ing with poly­phon­ic tonal music. Since this mate­r­i­al exists on scores in Western music nota­tion, and these scores have been dig­i­tized to inter­change for­mats such as MusicXML, a import pro­ce­dure cap­tur­ing the whole com­plex­i­ty of the score is a great asset. Mozart’s Musical dice game is a good exam­ple of this necessity.

In prac­tice you can pick up and rework frag­ments of the very large musi­cal reper­toire shared in MusicXML for­mat, or cre­ate your own build­ing blocks with a score edi­tor such as Werner Schweer’s MuseScore — a public-domain pro­gram work­ing with Linux, Mac and Windows. MuseScore rec­og­nizes many input/output for­mats and it is able to cap­ture music via MIDI or Open Sound Control.

Importing and converting a MusicXML score

A few public-domain MusicXML scores are found in the “xml­sam­ples” of the sam­ple set bp3-ctests-main.zip shared on GitHub. Most of them are frag­ments used for illus­trat­ing the for­mat. We start with a very short frag­ment of “MozartPianoSonata.musicxml” for which the graph­ic score is also available:

Mozart’s piano sonata, an excerpt in com­mon Western music notation

First cre­ate a Data file named for instance “-da.musicXML”. Default set­tings will be suf­fi­cient for this exam­ple, but a “-se.musicXML” file may be declared on the data win­dow, with the result that you will be prompt­ed to cre­ate it. Keep default set­tings as they include graph­ic display.

To import the MusicXML file, click the Choose File but­ton on top of the edit­ing form, select the file and click IMPORT.

The machine will dis­play the list of “parts” con­tained in the score. Each part may be assigned to an instru­ment, includ­ing human voic­es. This score con­tains a unique part to be played on an Acoustic Grand Piano which would be ren­dered by chan­nel 1 of a MIDI device. This MIDI chan­nel infor­ma­tion appears in the Bol Processor score and may be lat­er mapped to a Csound instrument.

Clicking CONVERT THEM (or it) is the only things that remains to be done!

This will cre­ate the fol­low­ing Bol Processor data:

// MusicXML file ‘MozartPianoSonata.musicxml’ con­vert­ed
// Score part ‘P1’: instru­ment = Acoustic Grand Piano — MIDI chan­nel 1

-se.musicXML

{_tempo(2) _chan(1){2,{2,C#6},{C#5,E5,A5}-,{1/4,A2 C#3 E3}{1/4,A3}{3/2,A3 A3 A3}}} {_tempo(2) _chan(1){2,{2,D6 C#6 B5 C#6 D6 C#6 B5 C#6},{1/4,A2 C#3 E3}{1/4,A3}{3/2,A3 A3 A3}}}{_tempo(2) _chan(1){2,{2,F#5,A5,D6},{1/4,D2 F#2 A2}{1/4,D3}{3/2,D3 D3 D3}}}{_tempo(2) _chan(1){2,{1/8,D6}{3/8,E5,A5,C#6}{1/8,D6}{3/8,E5,A5,C#6}{1/8,D6}{3/8,E5,A5,C#6}{1/8,D6}{3/8,E5,A5,C#6},{1/4,A2 C#3 E3}{1/4,A3}{3/2,A3 A3 A3}}}{_tempo(2) _chan(1){2,{3/2,B5}{1/2,E6},{2,E5,G#5},{1/4,E2 G#2 B2}{1/4,E3}{3/2,E3 E3 E3}}}

Imported scores can be played, expand­ed, explod­ed and imploded

Indeed this looks uneasy to read, but remem­ber that a lay per­son would not even make sense of scores in Western music nota­tion! Fortunately, a PLAY but­ton is now avail­able to lis­ten to the piece. By default, it is also saved as a MIDI file which can be inter­pret­ed by a MIDI soft syn­the­siz­er such as PianoTeq:

Excerpt of Mozart’s piano sonata, an excerpt played by Bol Processor with PianoTeq

The same process can be invoked in the Csound envi­ron­ment. If Csound is installed and respon­sive, select­ing the Csound out­put for­mat will pro­duce a Csound score imme­di­ate­ly con­vert­ed to an AIFF sound file dis­played on the process window:

Playing the same piece via Csound. Note that the dura­tion is 12 sec­onds (instead of 10) because a silence of 2 sec­onds (by default) is append­ed at the end of the track.

Understanding the conversion process

Let us com­pare the score in com­mon Western nota­tion with its con­ver­sion to Bol Processor data. This may be help­ful for know­ing the fea­tures and lim­i­ta­tions of MusicXML files. Remember that this for­mat is a full descrip­tion of a graph­ic rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the musi­cal work. It is up to the musi­cian to add implic­it infor­ma­tion nec­es­sary for a prop­er (and artis­tic) ren­der­ing of the piece…

Musical scores of clas­si­cal works are seg­ment­ed in mea­sures marked by ver­ti­cal lines. This score con­tains 5 mea­sures of equal dura­tions. The MusicXML file con­tains data telling that the dura­tion of each mea­sure is 2 beats, mean­ing 2 sec­onds if the metronome is beat­ing at 60 beats per minute. However, instruc­tion _tempo(2) dou­bles the speed, which results in mea­sures last­ing for 1 sec­ond. The third mea­sure con­tains a chord {2, F#5, A5, D6} of half notes (min­ims) last­ing 2 beats.

The Bol Processor score also dis­plays the five mea­sures, each of which is inter­pret­ed as a poly­met­ric struc­ture. A MIDI chan­nel instruc­tion has been auto­mat­i­cal­ly insert­ed in the begin­ning of each mea­sure, indi­cat­ing which part it belongs to.

Let us read the first mea­sure and com­pare it with its con­ver­sion on the score:

{2, {2, C#6}
{C#5, E5, A5} - ,
{1/4, A2 C#3 E3} {1/4, A3} {3/2, A3 A3 A3}}

The ‘2’ (green col­or) is the total dura­tion of the poly­met­ric expres­sion (i.e. the mea­sure). On the first line is the upper score (in G key on the graph­ic score) and the sec­ond line (in F key on the image) is the low­er score. On top of the upper score is a half note C#6 inter­pret­ed as {2, C#6}. A com­ma (in red col­or) indi­cate a new field of the poly­met­ric struc­ture that needs to be super­posed to the first field. It con­tains a chord {C#5, E5, A5} of quar­ter notes (crotch­ets) last­ing 1 beat fol­lowed by a rest of 1 beat notat­ed “-”.

The print­ed score indi­cates an arpeg­gio on the chord which is ignored to facil­i­tate expla­na­tions. Arpeggios will be con­sid­ered below.

In order to com­plete the field we need a rest of 1 beat that is not indi­cat­ed on the graph­ic score, although the cor­re­spond­ing gap is men­tioned in the MusicXML file. In Bol Processor nota­tion, rests can be notat­ed ‘-’ or as inte­ger numbers/ratios. For instance, a 3-beat rest could be notat­ed “---” or {3, -} or {3}, where­as a rest of 3/4 beat should be notat­ed {3/4, -} or {3/4}.

The low­er score con­tains a sequence that is trou­ble­some for a machine: three grace notesA2 C#3 E3″. Grace notes are not assigned any dura­tion in MusicXML files, so we fol­low the prac­tice of grant­i­ng this sequence with a dura­tion of half of the fol­low­ing prin­ci­pal note, here the first occur­rence of “A3″ declared as eight notes last­ing 1/2 beat. Consequently, the stream of grace notes has a total dura­tion of 1/4 beat and is notat­ed {1/4, A2 C#3 E3}. It is fol­lowed by A3 whose length is reduced by one half, there­fore {1/4, A3}. The fol­low­ing 3 occur­rences of A3 have a total dura­tion of 3/2 beats, hence {3/2, A3 A3 A3}.

The struc­ture of this first mea­sure is made clear on the graph­ic dis­play. Note that, unlike the piano roll dis­play, this object rep­re­sen­ta­tion does not posi­tion sound-objects ver­ti­cal­ly accord­ing to pitch values:

The first mea­sure of the Mozart sonata’s sample

The rest of the score can be deci­phered and explained in the same man­ner. Bol Processor nota­tion is based on very sim­ple (and mul­ti­cul­tur­al) prin­ci­ples yet dif­fi­cult to cre­ate by hand… Therefore it is most con­ve­nient­ly pro­duced by gram­mars or extract­ed from MusicXML scores.

Note that it is easy to mod­i­fy the tem­po of this piece. For instance, to slow it down, insert instruc­tion _tempo(1/2) at the beginning:

Exploding scores

Clicking the EXPLODE but­ton seg­ments the musi­cal work as sep­a­rate mea­sures which make it eas­i­er to ana­lyze the con­ver­sion or reuse fragments:

The five mea­sures of Mozart’s sonata explod­ed on the Data window

Each mea­sure can be played (or expand­ed) sep­a­rate­ly. Segments are labelled [item 1], [item 2] etc. for an eas­i­er identification.

Button IMPLODE recon­structs the orig­i­nal work from its fragments.

A more complex example

Let us try DichterLiebe (op. 48) Im wun­der­schö­nen Monat Mai by Robert Schumann. The MusicXML score is in the “xml­sam­ples” fold­er dis­trib­uted in the sam­ple set “bp3-ctests-main.zip” shared on GitHub, along with its graph­ic score (read the PDF file).

The Bol Processor score is more complex:

“Im wun­der­schö­nen Monat Mai” (Robert Schumann)

This piece yields a sophis­ti­cat­ed tim­ing that can be appre­ci­at­ed on the sound output:

Im wun­der­schö­nen Monat Mai (Robert Schumann) inter­pret­ed by the Bol Processor on a PianoTeq vibrophone

The cor­rect­ing ren­der­ing of this piece on Bol Processor is obtained with its (default) set­ting of quan­ti­za­tion to 10 mil­lisec­onds. Quantization is a process merg­ing the time-settings of events when these are prox­i­mate by less than a cer­tain val­ue: a human would not notice an error of 10 mil­lisec­onds in tim­ing, but merg­ing “time streaks” is an effi­cient way of sav­ing mem­o­ry space when build­ing a phase dia­gram of events. In this par­tic­u­lar piece, set­ting the quan­ti­za­tion to 30 ms already would cre­ate a notice­able default of syn­chro­niza­tion. This gives an idea of the accu­ra­cy expect­ed from human per­form­ers, which their trained audi­tive and motion­al sys­tems han­dle with­out difficulty.

Note that this MusicXML score com­pris­es 2 parts, one for voice and the sec­ond one for piano. These are sent to MIDI chan­nels 1 and 2 respec­tive­ly. These chan­nels should in turn be sent to dif­fer­ent Csound instru­ments. When sev­er­al instru­ments are not avail­able it is pos­si­ble to lis­ten to them sep­a­rate­ly by import­ing select­ed parts of the score.

Since the first mea­sure is incom­plete (1/4 beat), the piano roll is not aligned on the back­ground streaks (num­bered 0, 1, 2…):

This prob­lem can be solved by insert­ing a silence of dura­tion 3/4 in front of the score:

{3/4} {_chan(1){1/4,{{1/4,-}}},_chan(2){1/4,{{1/4,C#5},{1/4,-}}}} … etc.

which yields:

Piano roll aligned to the time streaks

The musi­cal work may be inter­pret­ed at dif­fer­ent speeds after insert­ing a “_tempo()” instruc­tion in the begin­ning. For instance, giv­en that the metronome is set to 60 beats per minute, insert­ing _tempo(3/4) would set the tem­po to 60 * 3 / 4 = 45 beats per minute. To pro­duce a sound ren­der­ing of this par­tic­u­lar piece we insert­ed a per­for­mance con­trol _legato(25) extend­ing by 25% the dura­tions of all notes with­out mod­i­fy­ing the score. We also set up a bit of rever­ber­a­tion on the PianoTeq vibro­phone. The result­ing piano roll was:

Same piece with _legato(25) extend­ing note dura­tions by 25%

Time-reversed Bach?

The _retro tool also gen­er­ates bizarre trans­for­ma­tions, most of which would sound “unmu­si­cal”. Some of them are inter­est­ing. For instance, this is Bach’s Goldberg Variation Nr. 5 played on Bol Processor + Csound with (Bach’s pre­sum­ably favourite) Kirnberger II tem­pera­ment — read Comparing tem­pera­ments:

Bach’s Goldberg Variation Nr. 5 (Kirnberger II tem­pera­ment) — MuseScore tran­scrip­tion by crashbangzoom808

Listen to it after apply­ing the _retro tool:

Time-reversed ver­sion of Bach’s Goldberg Variation Nr. 5 (Kirnberger II temperament)

In sum, many (musi­cal­ly mean­ing­ful) mod­i­fi­ca­tions can be achieved, includ­ing insert­ing vari­ables and send­ing the data to a gram­mar that will pro­duce entire­ly dif­fer­ent pieces. To achieve this, the gram­mar — for instance “-gr.myTransformations” — needs to be declared on top of the Data window.

The claim in favor of “well-tempered tun­ings” for inter­pret­ing Baroque music can be fur­ther assessed by com­par­ing the fol­low­ing ver­sions of J.-S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto Nr 2 in F major (BWV1047) part 3:

J.-S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto Nr 2 in F major (BWV1047) part 3 - Kirnberger II tuning
J.-S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto Nr 2 in F major (BWV1047) part 3 - equal-tempered tuning

Complex structures

As per this writ­ing, BP3 has been able to import and con­vert all MusicXML files con­tained in the “xml­sam­ples” fold­er. However, pieces rat­ed “too com­plex” might not be played nor expand­ed because of over­flow . Given that it is pos­si­ble to iso­late mea­sures after click­ing the EXPLODE but­ton, a PLAY safe but­ton was cre­at­ed to pick up chunks and play them in a recon­struct­ed sequence. The only draw­back is that graph­ics are deac­ti­vat­ed, which is of less­er impor­tance giv­en the com­plex­i­ty of the piece.

Listen for instance to Lee Actor’s Prelude to a Tragedy (2003), a musi­cal work made of 22 parts assigned to var­i­ous instru­ments via the 16 MIDI chan­nels — read the graph­ic score.

Lee Actor’s “Prelude to a Tragedy” (2003) with incor­rect assign­ment of some instru­ments, played by the Bol Processor using its Javascript MIDIjs play­er

The map­ping of instru­ments is faulty because most chan­nels are played as piano instead of flute, oboe, English horn, trum­pet, vio­la etc. Parts mapped to chan­nels 10 and 16 are fed with drum sounds. All these instru­ments have been syn­the­sized by the Javascript MIDIjs play­er installed on BP3’s inter­face. A bet­ter solu­tion would be to feed the “prelude-to-a-tragedy.midMIDI file to a syn­the­siz­er able to imi­tate the whole set of instru­ments, for instance MuseScore.

Score part ‘P1’: instru­ment = Picc. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 1
Score part ‘P2’: instru­ment = Fl. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 2
Score part ‘P3’: instru­ment = Ob. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 3
Score part ‘P4’: instru­ment = E.H. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 4
Score part ‘P5’: instru­ment = Clar. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 5
Score part ‘P6’: instru­ment = B. Cl. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 5
Score part ‘P7’: instru­ment = Bsn. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 7
Score part ‘P8’: instru­ment = Hn. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 8
Score part ‘P9’: instru­ment = Hn. 2 (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 8
Score part ‘P10’: instru­ment = Tpt. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 9
Score part ‘P11’: instru­ment = Trb. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 11
Score part ‘P12’: instru­ment = B Trb. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 11
Score part ‘P13’: instru­ment = Tuba (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 12
Score part ‘P14’: instru­ment = Timp. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 13
Score part ‘P15’: instru­ment = Splash Cymbal — MIDI chan­nel 10
Score part ‘P16’: instru­ment = Bass Drum — MIDI chan­nel 10
Score part ‘P17’: instru­ment = Harp (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 6
Score part ‘P18’: instru­ment = Vln. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 14
Score part ‘P19’: instru­ment = Vln. 2 (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 15
Score part ‘P20’: instru­ment = Va. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 16
Score part ‘P21’: instru­ment = Vc. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 16
Score part ‘P22’: instru­ment = Cb. (V2k) — MIDI chan­nel 16

Lee Actor’s “Prelude to a Tragedy” (2003) inter­pret­ed by MuseScore

Remember, though, that these meant to be raw inter­pre­ta­tions of musi­cal scores based on a few quan­ti­fied para­me­ters. To achieve a bet­ter ren­der­ing, per­for­mance para­me­ters should be insert­ed in the Bol Processor score for con­trol­ling vol­ume, panoram­ic etc. on a MIDI device, or an unlim­it­ed num­ber of para­me­ters with Csound.

Stylistic lim­i­ta­tions are evi­dent in tran­scrip­tions of jazz music, in con­trast with musi­cal works ini­tial­ly com­posed in writ­ing. A tran­scrip­tion of impro­vi­sa­tion­al mate­r­i­al is mere­ly a fixed pic­ture of one of its innu­mer­able vari­a­tions. Therefore, its score may con­vey an edu­ca­tion­al, rather than artis­tic, vision of the piece. The fol­low­ing is a tran­scrip­tion of Oscar Peterson’s Watch What Happens from a MusicXML score:

Oscar Peterson’s “Watch What Happens” inter­pret­ed by Bol Processor on PianoTeq, mm = 136 bpm
Source: MusicXML score by jonas­gss in the MuseScore com­mu­ni­ty

The Bol Processor score of this tran­scrip­tion is as fol­lows. The metronome has been raised to 131 bpm to match an esti­mat­ed per­for­mance speed — easy for a machine! Below are an excerpt of the piano roll dis­play and the full Bol Processor score:

Excerpt of piano roll for Oscar Peterson’s “Watch What Happens

{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{--- 1/2 {1/2,C4 F4 C5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{Bb4 F4{3/2,Ab4}{1/2,Ab5 Gb5},- C4 --}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{- D3{2,Gb3}, 2 {2,Eb2,Bb2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{2,F5 Bb4 C5 C4}{3/2,D4}{1/2,Eb4 Db4 D4},{F4,C5}{1/2,F4,G4}{1/2,F3,G3}{2,Gb3}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{C4{1,Bb3 Bb2}{2,A2},{D3,A3}{1,Eb3 Eb2}{2,D2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{2/3,Ab4&}{2/3,E4&,&Ab4}{2/3,&E4,G4} 1/2 {1/6,Db5}{1/3,Db6&}&Db6,-- Gb4 -, 2/3 {1/3,Cb4&}{1,&Cb4}{Bb3,Eb4}-}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 2/3 {1/3,F3&}&F3{2,E3}, 2/3 {1/3,G2&}{1,&G2}{2,C2,G2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 1/2 {1/6,F5}{1/3,F6&}&F6{2,A4 Cb7 G4},F4 -{3/2,- Cb6 -}{1/2,F4 E4 F4},{Ab3,Db4} 1 {C4,F4}-}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{4,Eb3 Eb3},{2,F2}{2,Cb2,Gb2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{3,D5&}{1,&D5 G5 Bb5 D6 C6 Bb5},{3/2,- F4 Gb4}{1/2,A4 Gb4}{2,G4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{3/2,- F3 Gb3}{1/2,A3 Gb3}G3&{1,&G3 G3 Bb3 D4 C4 Bb3}, 1/2 {3/2,Bb2}--}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{D6 A4 A4{1/2,G5 Bb5}{1/2,D6 C6 Bb5}, 1 {Cb4,Eb4,F4,Ab4}{Bb3,D4,Gb4}-}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{D4 F3 E3{1/2,G3 Bb3}{1/2,D4 C4 Bb3}, 1 {Db2,Ab2}{C2,G2}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{D6{3/4,D4}{1/4,F4}{1/3,Eb4 G4 Bb4 D5}{2/3,F5 Eb5 G5 Bb5}{1/4,Cb6}{1/4,G4 Bb4}{1/2,D5 C5 Bb4}, 1 {3/4,F3,Ab3}{1/4,Ab3,Cb4} 1 {Cb5,Eb5,G5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{-{1/2,Cb3}{1/4,C3 Db3}{1/4,D3}{1/3,C3 Eb3 G3 Bb3}{1/3,D4 C4}{1/3,Eb4}A4,-- 1 {F3,Eb4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{D5 Eb5 E5 Eb5,{4,- A4 - Bb4 - Cb5 - Bb4},{3/2,- D4 -}{1/2,Eb4,Ab4} 1/2 {1/2,E4,A4} 1/2 {1/2,Eb4,Ab4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{4,- A3 - Bb3 - Cb4 - Bb3},Bb2 Cb3 C3 Cb3,-{3,- Gb3 - G3 - Gb3}}}}{_tempo(41/30) _vel(64) _chan(1){1319/240,{D5{17/120,F2 F3} 17/1920 {119/1920,A3}{17/80,C4 D4 F4}103/40, 57/40 {17/240,A4}601/240, 359/240 4, 359/240 {17/120,C5 D5} 17/1920 {119/1920,F5}{17/80,A5 C6 D6}499/240, 461/240 {17/240,F6}Db6{1,A4 Ab4}1/120, 479/120 1/120,{D4,G4,A4}--{1,- F4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{A3 -{1,- A1}Db4,{Bb2,F3} 2 {G3,A3}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){2,{A4{1,- G5 Bb5 D6 C6 Bb5},{C4,D4}-}},_vel(64) _chan(2){2,{D3{1,- G3 Bb3 D4 C4 Bb3},{Bb1,F2}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{D6 A4 C5&{1,&C5 G5 Bb5 D6 C6 Bb5}, 1 {Cb4,Eb4,F4,Ab4}{2,Bb3,Eb4,Ab4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{D4 F3 E3&{1,&E3 G3 Bb3 D4 C4 Bb3}, 1 {Db2,Ab2}{2,C2,G2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{D6{1,Ab3 Cb4 D4 F4 Eb4 G4 Bb4 D5}{1,F5 Eb5 G5 Bb5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{D4{1,Cb3 C3 Db3 D3 C3 Eb3 G3 Bb3}{1,D4 C4 Eb4 G4}}}}{_tempo(7/4) _vel(64) _chan(1){671/96,{Cb6{17/80,A6 F6} 17/1280 {119/1280,G6}{17/160,G6} 17/1920 {119/1920,Eb6}601/240, 359/240 4, 359/240 1/16 {1/8,C6}{1/16,C6}{1/4,A5 F5}{53/240,G5 Eb5} 53/3840 {371/3840,C5}{53/80,C5 A4 F4 G4 Eb4 C4}97/96, 287/96 4, 287/96 {1/2,G3 A3 F3}{1/2,Eb3}1/96, 383/96 1/96,{Cb5,Eb5,G5} 1/4 1/12 {1/3,D6 -}{1/12,G5}{1/2,- D5} 1/12 {1/3,G4 -}{1/12,D4} 1/4 -}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2,A4}- 1/2 {1/2,- Cb2},{2,F3,Eb4}--}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{2,- D5 A4 Eb5 Bb4 E5}-, 7/3 {2/3,F5 C5},{4/3,- A4 D4 -}{1/3,Eb4,Ab4} 1/3 {1/3,E4,A4} 1/3 {1/3,F4,Bb4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{{2/3,Bb1}{4/3,Bb2 Cb3 Bb3 C3}-, 7/3 {2/3,Db3 C4},-{2,- Gb3 - G3 - Ab3}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{Gb5{1,Db4 Gb4 A4 D5 F6 A6 D7 Gb7 A6 D7 Gb7 A7}-{1,Db6 Bb5},{Gb4,Cb5,Db5} 2 {C5,F5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Db4}{1/2,D2 A2 Gb3&}&Gb3 A1 F4,{D3,A3} 2 {G3,Db4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){2,{{1/2,A5}{1/2,A4 D5}{1,G5 - Gb5 - Eb5 D5},{A4,Db5,Eb5,Gb5}-}},_vel(64) _chan(2){2,{{1/2,Gb2}{1/2,A3 D4}{1,G4 - Gb4 - E4 D4},{D1,A1}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1,F5 Bb3}{1/2,G4 F4}{1/2,A4 C5 E5}Db5{1,Bb4 Ab4 -}, 2 {F4,Ab4}{1,G4 F4 -}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,F4}{1/2,Db3 D3 Eb3}{1/2,E3 D3}{1/2,- Cb4 C4}{1,Db4 G2 Eb4}{2/3,Eb4}{1/3,Ab2},-- 2/3 {1/3,F3,Cb4}{2/3,F3,Cb4}{1/3,Db2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{1,- E6}{1/2,E6 G4}{1/2,E5}{1/2,Eb4 Bb4}{1/2,Ab4}, 1/2 {1/2,G5,Cb6,C6}{G5,Cb6,C6}{1/2,Cb4 G4}{1/2,F4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{E3{3/4,E4}{1/4,F3}{3/4,A2}{1/4,Ab2},{C2,G2}{G3,Cb4,C4} 1/2 {1/2,- Db2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,G4}{1/2,G4 Cb5 D5}{1,Cb5 C5 E5 G5 Cb6}{3/2,D6}{1/2,C6 Cb6 A5 G5},{A3,D4}---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{E3 ---,{C2,G2}---}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{Bb5 G4{1,Ab4 Gb4 Db4 Bb3}, 1 {Bb3,Eb4}-}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{- C3 -}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{3,Eb4},- Bb3 Db4,{2,- Gb3}{Gb3,Bb3}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{- Eb2 Ab2}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{3,F4},{3,F3,Bb3,C4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{{3,Ab2},{3,Db2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{3,F4},{3,G3,Bb3,Eb4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{{3,Eb3},{3,C2,G2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{2,F4&}{1/2,&F4}{1/2,- F4},{3,Gb3,A3,Db4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{{3,Eb3},{3,Cb2,Gb2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{3,D5},- F4 Gb4,- D4{1/2,D4}{1/2,G4 Gb4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{- F3{1/2,Gb3}{1/2,A3 Gb3},-{2,Bb2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){2,{G4{1,G5 Bb5 D6 C6 Bb5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){2,{G3{1,G3 Bb3 D4 C4 Bb3}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{D6 A4 C5{1,G5 Bb5 D6 C6 Bb5}, 1 {Cb4,Eb4,Ab4}{Bb3,Eb4,Ab4}-}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{D4 F3 E3{1,G3 Bb3 D4 C4 Bb3}, 1 {Db2,Ab2}{C2,G2}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{D6{1,Ab3 Cb4 D4 F4 Eb4 G4 Bb4 D5}{1,F5 Eb5 G5 Bb5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{D4{1,Cb3 C3 Db3 D3 C3 Eb3 G3 Bb3}{1,D4 C4 Eb4 F4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{3/2,Cb6}{1,G4 Bb4 D5 C5}{1/2,Bb4},-- 1/2 {1/2,- Bb4&},{2,Cb5,Eb5,G5}-}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{{2,A4}-,{2,F3,Eb4}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 1/2 {3/2,F4}{1/2,F4}Bb4{1/2,Bb4 Bb4},{3/2,&Bb4}{3/2,Bb4& &Bb4 -}-, 1/2 {1,C4}{1/2,Db4,Gb4}{1/2,Db4}{3/2,C4,F4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 1/2 Gb3{1,Ab3 Gb3}Gb3&{1/4,&Gb3}{1/4,- Ab2}, 1/2 {1,Ab2}{1/2,E2,Cb3}{1/2,Eb2,Bb2}{3/2,Ab2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{1/2,Bb4 C5}{3/8,Ab4}{1/8,Ab4}{3/4,Ab4}{1/4,Bb4}{3/4,Gb4}{1/4,Gb4},{1/2,C4,F4}{1/2,Bb3,Eb4}{1,E4}{Ab3,Db4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{{1,Gb3 F3}E3 Eb3,{1/2,Ab2}{1/2,Db2,Ab2}{1,Gb2}{Cb2,Gb2}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{{3/4,F4}{9/4,C4 Db4 Eb4 F4 Ab4 C5 Eb5 F5 Ab5}, 1/4 {3/4,G4}--,{1,- D4}--,{1/2,Bb3,Eb4}{1/2,A3}Ab3 Ab4}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{{1,G2 Eb3}F3 F4,{1,C2 F2}{1,Bb2}{Ab3,Db4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){3,{ 1/8 {3/8,Db5&}{1/2,&Db5} 1/4 {1/4,- C4}{17/80,Db4 E4} 23/1280 {161/1280,G4}263/160 183/160, 89/48 {23/160,C5}{9/160,Db5}1/480 227/240,--- 1/480, 493/240 {1/6,E5}{53/160,G5 C6 D6} 1/480 {53/120,Eb6 G6 C7 D7}1/240, 719/240 1/240,A4 --, 1/3 {2/3,A5}--, 1/4 {3/4,E5}--}},_vel(64) _chan(2){3,{ 1/8 {3/8,G3&}{1/2,&G3}{17/80,Eb2 Bb2} 23/1280 {161/1280,G3}263/160, 65/48 {23/160,Db3&}{3/2,&Db3&}1/480, 719/480 3/2 1/480,Eb3 --, 1/3 {2/3,F4}--, 1/4 {3/4,Db4}--}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/4,- G7}{3/4,C8&}{1/2,&C8 -} 1/2 --,Eb7 1/3 {8/3,- Eb4&},-- 2/3 {1/3,G3&,Ab3&,C4&}{&G3&,&Ab3&,&C4&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&Db3 1/6 {1/2,Ab2}{1/3,Eb3&}{2,&Eb3&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,&Eb4 - 2/3 {1/3,Db4&}&Db4&,{&G3,&Ab3,&C4}- 2/3 {1/3,F3&,Ab3&,Bb3&}{&F3&,&Ab3&,&Bb3&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{6/5,&Eb3 Eb3}{4/5,Ab2 Eb3&}{2,&Eb3&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,&Db4 - 2/3 {1/3,Eb4&}&Eb4&,{&F3,&Ab3,&Bb3}- 2/3 {1/3,G3&,Ab3&,C4&}{&G3&,&Ab3&,&C4&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{6/5,&Eb3 Eb3}{4/5,Ab2 Eb3&}{2,&Eb3&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{2,&Eb4}- 1/6 {1/2,F5}{1/3,Ab5&},{2,&G3,&Ab3,&C4}--}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&Eb3&{2/3,&Eb3}{1/3,F4&}{2,&F4&},- 2/3 {1/3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}{2,&Ab3&,&C4&,&Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{1/6,&Ab5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/3,F5}Ab5&{1/3,&Ab5 -}{2/3,- Eb5} 1/2 1/8 {3/8,Ab4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&F4 2/3 {1/3,G4&}{2,&G4&},{&Ab3,&C4,&Db4} 2/3 {1/3,Bb3&,C4&,Eb4&}{2,&Bb3&,&C4&,&Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/4,Cb5 C5&}{3/4,&C5&}&C5&{1/6,&C5}{1/2,Bb4}{1/3,C5} 1/8 {3/8,Db5} 1/8 {3/8,Eb5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&G4&{1,&G4 - F4&}{2,&F4&},{&Bb3&,&C4&,&Eb4&}{1/3,&Bb3,&C4,&Eb4} 1/3 {1/3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}{2,&Ab3&,&C4&,&Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/5,Cb5 Eb5&}{4/5,&Eb5 Bb4}{1/2,Eb5} 1/8 {3/8,Bb4} 1/6 {1/2,Eb5}{4/3,Bb4& &Bb4 - Eb4&},--- 1/8 {3/8,Ab4} 1/2,C5 - C5 -}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&F4&{1,&F4 - G4&}{2,&G4&},{&Ab3&,&C4&,&Db4&}{1/3,&Ab3,&C4,&Db4} 1/3 {1/3,Bb3&,C4&,Eb4&}{2,&Bb3&,&C4&,&Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{1/6,&Eb4}{1/2,F4}{1/3,Eb4}- 23/160 {103/240,F5}343/240, 247/96 {137/240,Ab5} 1/480 {103/240,Bb5}41/96, 343/96 {103/240,C6} 0, 4 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&G4}{1/3,C4}{3,F4&},{2/3,&Bb3,&C4,&Eb4}{1/3,Bb3}{3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{137/120,Ab5 F5} 1/8 {117/160,Eb6}{137/160,- G5 Eb5&}{183/160,&Eb5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&F4}{1/3,F4}{2,G4&}{2/3,&G4}{1/3,G4&},{2/3,&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{1/3,Ab3,C4,Db4}{2,Bb3&,C4&,Eb4&}{2/3,&Bb3,&C4,&Eb4}{1/3,Bb3&,C4&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{1,&Eb5 - F5}- 23/160 {103/240,F5}343/240, 247/96 {137/240,Ab5} 1/480 {103/240,F5}41/96, 343/96 {103/240,Db5} 0, 4 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&G4{3,F4&},{&Bb3,&C4,&Eb4}{3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{137/120,Bb4 G4} 1/8 {107/240,Ab4}{137/120,C5 - Eb5 Eb4&}{183/160,&Eb4&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&F4}{1/3,Eb4}G4&{2/3,&G4}{1/3,C4&}{1,&C4 G4&},{2/3,&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{1/3,Bb3,C4}{Bb3&,C4&,Eb4&}{2/3,&Bb3,&C4,&Eb4}{1/3,Eb3&}{1/2,&Eb3}{1/2,Bb3&,C4&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{6/5,&Eb4 F4}{4/5,Ab4 F4&}{4/5,&F4 Ab4& &Ab4 F4&}{4/5,&F4}{2/5,F6&},--- 2/3 {1/3,F5&,C6&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&G4{2,Db4&}{2/3,&Db4}{1/3,F4&},{&Bb3,&C4,&Eb4}{2,Ab3&,C4&}{2/3,&Ab3,&C4}{1/3,G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{2/3,&F6}{1/3,Eb6}{1/4,Cb6 C6&}{3/4,&C6&}{2,&C6&},{1/2,&F5,&C6} 1/2 ---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&F4{3,G4&},{&G3,&Db4}{3,Bb3&,C4&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{3/2,&C6}{1/2,F5&}{6/5,&F5 Ab5}{4/5,C6 C6&},- 2/3 {1/3,Ab4&}{1,&Ab4 -}{C5&,F5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&G4&{2/3,&G4}{1/3,E4&}&E4 G4&,{&Bb3&,&C4&,&Eb4&}{2/3,&Bb3,&C4,&Eb4}{1/3,C3&,Bb3&}{&C3,&Bb3}{Eb3&,A3&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{23/160,&C6}{103/240,Bb5}823/240, 55/96 {137/240,Ab5} 1/480 {103/240,C6}233/96, 151/96 {103/240,C6&}{1/2,&C6}3/2, 961/480 --, 1201/480 {1/4,Gb5 C6&}{1/4,&C6&}&C6& 0,{&C5&,&F5&}{1/6,&C5,&F5}{1/2,C5,E5}{1/3,C5&,E5&}{1/2,&C5,&E5}{3/2,C5&,G5&}1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&G4&{1/6,&G4}{1/2,G4}{1/3,Ab4&}{1/2,&Ab4}{3/2,G4&},{&Eb3&,&A3&,&Eb4&}{1/6,&Eb3,&A3,&Eb4}{1/2,Ab3,D4}{1/3,A3&,Eb4&}{1/2,&A3,&Eb4}{3/2,Ab3&,D4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{3/2,&C6}{1/2,F5&}{6/5,&F5 Ab5}{4/5,C6 C6},{&C5&,&G5&}{2/3,&C5,&G5}{1/3,Ab4&}{1,&Ab4 -}{C5&,F5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&G4&{2/3,&G4}{1/3,Eb4&}&Eb4 G4&,{&Ab3&,&D4&}{2/3,&Ab3,&D4}{1/3,Eb3&,A3&}{&Eb3,&A3}{Ab3&,D4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{137/120,Bb5 Ab5} 1/8 {107/240,C6}{137/120,Eb6 - C6 Ab5&}{183/160,&Ab5&}1/480, 1919/480 1/480,{&C5,&F5}---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&G4 F4&{2/3,&F4}{1/3,F4&}&F4&,{&Ab3,&D4}{Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}{2/3,&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{1/3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}{&Ab3&,&C4&,&Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{&Ab5{1,- F4&}{6/5,&F4 Ab4}{4/5,C5 C5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&F4&{2/3,&F4}{1/3,G4&}{2,&G4&},{&Ab3&,&C4&,&Db4&}{2/3,&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{1/3,G3&,Db4&}{2,&G3&,&Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{23/160,&C5}{103/240,Bb4}823/240, 55/96 {137/240,Ab4} 1/480 {103/240,C5&}233/96, 151/96 {103/240,G4,&C5&}&C5& 1, 961/480 --, 1441/480 {1/3,&C5 -}{2/3,- Ab4&} 0,-- 23/160 {103/240,Gb4}343/240, 247/96 {137/240,F4} 1/480 {103/240,Db5&}41/96, 343/96 {103/240,Db4&,&Db5&} 0,-{2,- C4& &C4 -}- 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&G4}{1/3,A2}{2,Ab2&}{1/3,&Ab2 -}{2/3,- Ab3&},{&G3,&Db4} 2/3 {1/3,G3&}{1/6,&G3}{1/2,Gb3}{1/3,F3}A2&}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{6/5,&Ab4 Gb4}{2/5,D5&}{2/5,A4&,&D5&}{&A4,&D5} 1/8 {1/4,F5}{1/4,Eb5& &Eb5}{1/4,F5}{1/8,Eb5&}183/160,{1/2,&Db4,&Db5&}{1/2,&Db5&}{1/3,&Db5 -}{2/3,- D4&}&D4 - 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{137/120,&Ab3 Gb3} 1/8 {107/240,Bb2&}{183/160,&Bb2&,A3&}183/160, 137/48 {137/480,&Bb2,&A3} 1/480 {137/160,Gb4&}1/480, 1919/480 1/480,{3,&A2 --}{G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/8,&Eb5}{1/4,F5}{1/4,Eb5& &Eb5}{3/8,F5} 1/6 {1/2,C5}{1/3,C6&}&C6{3/4,C6}{1/4,- Eb5}, 1/2 1/4 {1/2,- Eb5& &Eb5 -} 1/4 1/2 --}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&Gb4&{1/3,&Gb4 -}{2/3,- F4&}{2,&F4},{&G3&,&Db4&}{1/6,&G3,&Db4} 1/6 1/3 {1/3,Gb3&,C4&}{2,&Gb3,&C4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{1/5,E5 F5&}{4/5,&F5 Ab5}Eb5&{23/160,&Eb5}{103/240,F5}343/240, 247/96 {137/240,Ab5} 1/480 {103/240,C6}41/96, 343/96 {103/240,C6&} 0, 4 1/480,-- 1 {C5&,F5&}1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,Gb4 F4 Ab4 G4&,{G3,Db4}{Gb3,C4}{Bb3,Eb4,E4}{A3&,D4&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{23/160,&C6}{103/240,Bb5}823/240, 55/96 {137/240,Ab5} 1/480 {103/240,C6}233/96, 151/96 {103/240,C6&}{1/4,&C6}7/4, 961/480 --, 1081/480 {1/2,- F5 Gb5 C6&}{1/4,&C6&}{1,&C6 G5&} 0,-- 1/2 {3/2,G5}1/480,{&C5&,&F5&}{1/6,&C5,&F5}{1/2,C5,E5}{1/3,C5&,F5&}{&C5,&F5} 2/3 {1/3,Cb5&,Db5&}1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{-- 1/2 {3/2,G4},&G4&{1/6,&G4}{1/2,G4}{1/3,Ab4&}{1,&Ab4 -} 2/3 {1/3,Ab4&},{&A3&,&D4&,&Eb4&}{1/6,&A3,&D4,&Eb4}{1/2,Ab3,D4}{1/3,A3&,Eb4&}{1/2,&A3,&Eb4} 1/2 2/3 {1/3,A3&,Eb4&},-- 1/2 {3/2,Ab3,D4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/6,&G5}{1/2,Gb5}{1/3,F5}-{6/5,- F4 Ab4}{3/5,C5}{1/5,Bb4&},-{2,F5}-,{2/3,&Cb5,&Db5}{1/3,G4&,C5&,D5&}{2,&G4,&C5,&D5}F4&}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{-- 1/2 {1/2,- Eb4&}{1/4,&Eb4 -} 1/4 1/2, 15/4 1/4,{2/3,&Ab4}{1/3,D4&}{2,&D4}{3/4,D4}{1/4,Bb2&},{2/3,&A3,&Eb4}{1/3,Ab3&}{2,&Ab3}Ab3,-- 1/2 {1/2,- A3&}{1/4,&A3 -} 1/4 1/2}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1,&Bb4 Ab4}{2,C5&}{2/3,&C5}{1/3,F5},{1,&F4}{3,C4,F4,Ab4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4, 11/3 1/3,{1,&Bb2 Bb2}{2,Db4&}{2/3,&Db4}{1/3,F4&}, 1 {2,Bb2&,Ab3&}{2/3,&Bb2,&Ab3}{1/3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{--- 1/2 {1/2,- Ab4&},{137/120,Ab5 Eb6} 1/8 {107/240,C6&}{823/480,&C6}{137/240,F4}1/480, 1 {3,E5,A5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,&F4{2,Gb4}-,{&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{2,G3,Db4}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{&Ab4 ---,{2/5,- C5}{6/5,Bb4 Ab4 C5&}{2/5,G4&,&C5&}{1/2,&G4,&C5&}{1/2,&C5&}{1/3,&C5 -}{2/3,- Ab4&},-{1,- C4&}{6/5,&C4 F4}{2/5,Db5&}{2/5,Db4&,&Db5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,-{2,Ab2&}{1/3,&Ab2 -}{2/3,- Ab3&}, 8/5 {6/5,G3}{2/5,F3}{4/5,A2&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{2/3,&Ab4}{71/80,Gb4 D5&} 107/3840 {749/3840,A4&,&D5&}1067/480, 71/40 {427/480,&A4,&D5&}{71/160,G4,&D5}{71/160,Eb5&} 1/480 {71/160,Bb4&,&Eb5&}1/480,{1/2,&Db4,&Db5&}{1/2,&Db5&}{1/3,&Db5 -}{2/3,- D4&}{1,&D4 -} 2/3 {1/3,Eb4&,Ab4&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{2/3,&Ab3}{1/3,Gb3}{2,Bb2&}{1/3,&Bb2 -}{2/3,- Bb3&},{8/5,&A2}{6/5,A3}{2/5,G3}{4/5,Cb3&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{2/3,&Bb4,&Eb5}{1/3,E5&}{1,&E5 E6&}&E6&{1/6,&E6}{1/2,E6}{1/3,G6&},{2/3,&Eb4,&Ab4}{1/3,E4&,A4&,Cb5&}{1/2,&E4,&A4,&Cb5}{1/2,E5&,A5&,Cb6&}{&E5&,&A5&,&Cb6&}{1/6,&E5,&A5,&Cb6}{1/2,E5,A5,Cb6}{1/3,G5&,Bb5&,Eb6&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4, 3/2 5/2,{2/3,&Bb3}{1/3,Cb4&}{1,&Cb4 G4&}&G4&{1/6,&G4}{1/2,G4}{1/3,Eb4&},{2/3,&Cb3}{1/3,C3&,G3&}{1/2,&C3,&G3}{1/2,G3&,Cb4&,C4&,E4&}{&G3&,&Cb4&,&C4&,&E4&}{1/6,&G3,&Cb4,&C4,&E4}{1/2,G3,Cb4,C4,E4}{1/3,F3&,Cb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{-{2,E6}-,&G6 -{6/5,- G4 C5}{3/5,F5}{1/5,E5&},{&G5,&Bb5,&Eb6}{2,G5,A5,Cb6}{3/4,Ab4,Cb5,D5}{1/4,G4&,A4&,C5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{-{2,E4}-,&Eb4 -{6/5,- G3 C4}{3/5,F4}{1/5,E4&},{&F3,&Cb4}{2,G3,Cb4,C4}{3/4,D4}{1/4,C4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){961/240,{--- 1/2 1/8 {3/8,Db6}1/240,{6/5,&E5 D5 C5}{4/5,Eb5}-{23/80,- Eb6}43/60, 263/80 {23/160,E6}{137/480,Eb6} 23/160 23/160, 1853/480 {23/160,C6},{1/2,&G4,&A4,&C5}{1/2,E4}{Eb4,G4,Bb4}-- 1/240}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{1,&E4 Cb4}Bb3&{2/3,&Bb3}{1/3,G4&}&G4&,{1,&C4 -}C3&{2/3,&C3}{1/3,Bb3&,D4&,Eb4&}{&Bb3&,&D4&,&Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4, 1/8 {1/4,Bb5}{1/4,Ab5& &Ab5}{1/4,E5}{1/4,Eb5& &Eb5}{1/4,Db5}{1/4,C5& &C5}{1/4,Bb4}{1/4,Ab4& &Ab4}{1/4,A4}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,Eb5}{1/4,C5& &C5}{3/8,F5} 1/8 {1/4,Bb4}{1/8,G4&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{1,&G4 - E4}{3,Eb4&},{1/3,&Bb3,&D4,&Eb4} 1/3 {1/3,Db3,Bb3}{3,C3&,A3&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{1/8,&G4}{1/4,A4}{1/4,F5& &F5}{1/4,Eb5}{1/4,Db5& &Db5}{1/4,F5}{3/8,F4& &F4 G4}{1/4,A4}{1/8,C5}{3/8,A4} 1/2 1/8 {1/4,A4}{1/4,Bb4& &Bb4}{1/4,D5}{1/8,F5&},- 1/8 {3/8,D5} 1/2 --}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{2/3,&Eb4}{1/3,F4}F4{2,F4},{2/3,&C3,&A3}{1/3,A3,D4}{A3,D4}{2,D4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{1/8,&F5}{1/4,A5}{1/4,C6& &C6}{1/4,Cb6}{1/4,A5& &A5}{1/4,Bb5}{3/4,F5& &F5 G5 A5 G5 F5}{1/4,Eb5}{1/4,Db5& &Db5}{1/4,D5}{1/4,F4& &F4}{1/4,A4}{1/4,C5& &C5}{1/4,Cb5}{1/8,A4&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{3,A3}-,{3,Bb2}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){961/240,{- 1/2 1/8 {3/8,Cb6}-- 1/240,{1/8,&A4}{1/4,Bb4}{3/8,C5& &C5 Db5}{1/4,Eb5}{23/80,F5 Ab5}163/60, 103/80 {23/160,A5}{137/480,C6} 23/160 343/160, 893/480 {23/160,A5} 1/8 15/8, 481/240 1/8 {1/4,Bb5}{1/4,Ab5 Bb5}{1/4,Ab5}{1/4,F5& &F5}{1/4,Db5}{1/4,Bb4& &Bb4}{1/4,Eb5}{1/8,C5&}, 4 1/240}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4, 2/3 {1/3,F4&}{3,&F4&}, 2/3 {1/3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}{3,&Ab3&,&C4&,&Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{- 1/2 1/4 {1/2,- Gb4& &Gb4 -} 1/4 1/2 -,{1/8,&C5}{1/4,Db5}{1/4,F4& &F4}{1/4,Ab4}{1/4,C5& &C5}{1/4,Bb4}{1/4,F4& &F4}{3/8,Ab4}{2/5,- G4&}{4/5,&G4}{4/5,F5 Eb5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{2/3,&F4}{1/3,F4&}{2,&F4&}{1/3,&F4 -}{2/3,- Gb4&},{2/3,&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{1/3,G3&,C4&,Db4&}{2,&G3&,&C4&,&Db4&}{1/6,&G3,&C4,&Db4} 1/6 1/3 {1/3,G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{137/120,F5 Eb5} 1/8 {107/240,C5}{137/120,Eb5 - F5 Bb4&}{183/160,&Bb4&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,&Gb4{2,F4&}{2/3,&F4}{1/3,Gb4&},{&G3,&Db4}{2,Gb3&,C4&}{2/3,&Gb3,&C4}{1/3,G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{ 4 1/480,{2,&Bb4&}{23/160,&Bb4}{103/240,F5}343/240, 247/96 {137/240,Ab5} 1/480 {103/240,C6}41/96, 343/96 {103/240,C6&}, 4 1/480,-- 1 {C5&,F5&}1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{2/3,&Gb4}{1/3,F4&}&F4 Ab4 G4&,{2/3,&G3,&Db4}{1/3,Gb3&,C4&}{&Gb3,&C4}{Bb3,Eb4,E4}{A3&,D4&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{ 4 1/480,{23/160,&C6}{103/240,Bb5}823/240, 55/96 {137/240,Ab5} 1/480 {103/240,C6}233/96, 151/96 {103/240,C6&}{1/2,&C6}3/2, 961/480 1/2 {1/4,Gb5 C6&}{1/4,&C6&}{1,&C6 G4&},-- 1/2 {3/2,C5,G5}1/480,{&C5&,&F5&}{1/6,&C5,&F5}{1/2,C5,E5}{1/3,C5&,E5&}{1/2,&C5,&E5} 1/2 2/3 {1/3,Cb4&,Db4&,Eb4&}1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{-- 1/2 {3/2,G4},&G4&{1/6,&G4}{1/2,G4}{1/3,Ab4&}{1,&Ab4 -} 2/3 {1/3,A3&},{&A3&,&D4&,&Eb4&}{1/6,&A3,&D4,&Eb4}{1/2,Ab3,D4}{1/3,A3&,Eb4&}{1/2,&A3,&Eb4}{3/2,Ab3,D4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{107/480,&G4}{71/160,Gb4}{107/480,F4&}{71/160,&F4&}{427/480,&F4}{213/160,F5 Ab5 C6} 1/8 {51/160,C6&}1/480,{2/3,&Cb4,&Db4,&Eb4}{1/3,G3&,C4&,D4&}{&G3,&C4,&D4} 1 {C5&,F5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{2/3,&A3}{1/3,Ab3&}&Ab3 Ab4 G4&, 2/3 {1/3,Bb2&,F3&}{&Bb2,&F3}{A3,Eb4}{Ab3&,D4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{ 4 1/480,{23/160,&C6}{103/240,Bb5}823/240, 55/96 {137/240,Ab5} 1/480 {103/240,C6}233/96, 151/96 {103/240,Eb6&}{1/5,&Eb6}9/5, 961/480 {4/5,- C6& &C6 Ab5&}{4/5,&Ab5}{2/5,F4&}, 4 1/480,{&C5,&F5}{F5,Ab5} 2/3 {1/3,Db5&,F5&}{1/2,&Db5,&F5} 1/2 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,&G4 F4&{2/3,&F4}{1/3,F4&}&F4&,{&Ab3,&D4}{Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}{2/3,&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{1/3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}{&Ab3&,&C4&,&Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{-- 1/2 {1/2,- Ab5&}{1/4,&Ab5 -} 1/4 1/2,{1/6,&F4}{1/2,Ab4}{1/3,Eb5}{1/4,Cb5 C5&}{3/4,&C5&}{1,&C5 F5}{3/4,C6}{1/4,Bb5&},--- C5&}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,&F4{2,Gb4}Gb4&,{&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{2,G3,Db4}{G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4 2,{1,&Bb5 Ab5}{2,Ab5} 1/2 1/8 {1/4,F4}{1/8,A4&},&C5 ---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{-- 2, 5/3 1/3 E4 -,&Gb4&{1/6,&Gb4}{1/2,F4}{1/3,Db3&}&Db3 Eb4&,{&G3,&Db4}{Gb3,C4}{1,Bb3}{C3&,A3&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{1/8,&A4}{1/4,C5}{1/4,F5& &F5}{1/4,E5}{1/4,D5& &D5}{1/4,F5}{3/8,C5& &C5 Db5}{1/4,F5}{1/8,Ab5}{1/4,C6}{1/4,Cb6& &Cb6}{1/4,Bb5}{1/4,Ab5& &Ab5}{1/4,F5}{1/4,Db5& &Db5}{3/8,Bb4},-- 1/8 {3/8,C5} 1/2 -}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4, 5/3 7/3,&Eb4&{1/3,&Eb4 -}{2/3,- Db4&}&Db4 1/2 1/4 {1/4,- F4&},{&C3&,&A3&}{1/6,&C3,&A3} 1/6 1/3 {1/3,Bb2&,Ab3&}{&Bb2,&Ab3} 1/2 1/4 1/8 {1/8,G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 1/8 {3/8,F5} 1/8 {3/8,Db5} 1/8 {1/4,C5}{3/8,Ab5& &Ab5 -} 1/4 Ab5 -}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{3/8,&F4}{3/4,F4& &F4 -- F4& &F4}{3/8,C4} 1/2 2/3 {1/3,Gb4}F4&,{3/8,&G3,&Db4}{1/8,G3&,Db4&}{1/8,&G3,&Db4} 1/4 {1/8,G3&,Db4&}{1/8,&G3,&Db4}{3/8,Gb3} 1/2 2/3 {1/3,G3,Db4}{Gb3&,C4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{- 1/8 {3/8,F5} 1/2 --, 1/6 {1/2,F5}{4/3,Ab4& &Ab4 Cb5 F4}F5 1/2 {1/4,- C6}{1/4,A5},- 1/8 {3/8,Bb4} 1/2 Ab4 1/2 1/8 {3/8,G5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 4,{2/3,&F4}{1/3,Gb4}- 2/3 {1/3,E4}Eb4,{2/3,&Gb3,&C4}{1/3,G3,Db4}- 2/3 {1/3,Db3,Bb3}A3}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/8,G5}{1/4,F5}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,C5}{1/4,Db5& &Db5}{1/4,F5}{1/4,F4& &F4}{1/4,Ab4}{1/4,C5& &C5}{1/4,Bb4}{1/4,F4& &F4}{1/4,A4}{1/4,F4& &F4}{1/4,Ab4}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,Gb5}{1/8,E5&}, 1/4 {1/2,- Eb5& &Eb5 -} 1/4 1/8 {3/8,D5} 1/2 --}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 1/4 {1,- Ab4& &Ab4 -- G4& &G4 -} 1/4 1/2 2/3 {1/3,Eb4}D4, 1/4 1/8 {1/8,A3&,Eb4&}{1/8,&A3,&Eb4} 1/4 {1/8,Ab3&,D4&}{1/8,&Ab3,&D4} 1/8 1/4 1/2 2/3 {1/3,A3}Ab3}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/8,&E5}{1/4,F5}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,Ab5}{1/4,Bb5& &Bb5}{1/4,C6}{1/4,Ab5& &Ab5}{1/4,G5}{1/4,F5& &F5}{1/4,E5}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,Gb5}{1/4,E5& &E5}{1/4,F5}{3/8,C5& &C5 Db5}{1/4,Eb5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 2/3 {1/3,Ab4}G4 2/3 {1/3,Ab4}G4&, 2/3 {1/3,A3,Eb4}{Ab3,D4} 2/3 {1/3,A3,Eb4}{Ab3&,D4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){961/240,{- 1/2 1/8 {3/8,C6}-- 1/240,{1/4,F5 G5}{1/4,Ab5}{1/4,Bb5 C6}{1/4,Db6}{23/80,D6 Eb6}163/60, 103/80 {23/160,D6}{137/480,Db6} 23/160 343/160, 893/480 {23/160,Bb5} 1/8 15/8, 481/240 1/8 {1/4,Ab5}{1/4,F5& &F5}{1/4,Db5}{1/4,Bb4& &Bb4}{1/4,Eb5}{1/4,F4& &F4}{1/4,Ab4}{1/8,C5&}, 4 1/240}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&G4}{1/3,F4&}{2,&F4}-,{2/3,&Ab3,&D4}{1/3,Ab3&,Bb3&,Db4&}{2,&Ab3,&Bb3,&Db4}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{1/8,&C5}{1/4,Bb4}{1/4,F4& &F4}{1/4,Ab4}{1/4,Gb4& &Gb4}{1/4,G4}{3/8,F5& &F5 C5}{1/4,Db5}{1/6,D5 Eb5&}{1/3,&Eb5&}{1/2,&Eb5}{3/4,Eb5}{1/4,- Cb6&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{- 2/3 {1/3,Gb4&}&Gb4 Gb4&,- 2/3 {1/3,G3&,Cb4&,Db4&}{&G3,&Cb4,&Db4}{G3&,Cb4&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{- 1/2 1/4 {1/2,- Bb5& &Bb5 -} 1/4 1/2 -,{1/8,&Cb6}{1/4,Eb6}{1/4,Cb6& &Cb6}{1/4,G5}{1/4,Eb5& &Eb5}{1/4,Bb5}{1/4,G5& &G5}{3/8,Ab5} 1/12 {1/4,C6}{1/6,Ab5&}{1/2,&Ab5} 1/4 {1/2,- E6& &E6 Cb6}{1/4,A5}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{8/5,&Gb4}{6/5,G4}{2/5,G4}{4/5,Gb4&},{8/5,&G3,&Cb4,&Db4}{6/5,Bb3,C4,Eb4}{2/5,Bb3,C4,Eb4}{4/5,G3&,Cb4&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{3/2,E5 E4 -} 1/4 {1/4,- F5}-- 1/480,{23/80,- Cb5}1783/480, 23/80 {137/160,A4 E5 G4} 1/480 {137/160,G5}2, 961/480 1/80 {7/80,C5}{1/5,Ab4&}{1/10,&Ab4 G4&}{1/10,&G4&}{1/2,&G4}-, 4 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,&Gb4}{1/2,Db4 - G4&}&G4&{1,&G4 G4}Gb4&,{1/2,&G3,&Cb4,&Db4}{1/6,G3,Cb4} 1/6 {1/6,Ab3&,C4&,D4&}{&Ab3&,&C4&,&D4&}{1/2,&Ab3,&C4,&D4}{1/2,Ab3,C4,D4}{G3&,Cb4&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 1/8 {1/4,G6}{1/4,Db6& &Db6}{1/4,Cb6}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,G6}{1/4,F6& &F6}{1/4,G6}{1/4,F6& &F6}{1/4,Eb6}{1/4,C6& &C6}{1/4,Ab5}{1/4,F5& &F5}{1/4,Bb5}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,Ab5}{1/8,C5&}, 1/8 {3/8,G5,Gb6} 1/2 ---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&Gb4}{1/3,Gb4}F4&{2/3,&F4}{1/3,Gb4}F4,{2/3,&G3,&Cb4,&Db4}{1/3,G3,Cb4,Db4}{Gb3&,C4&}{2/3,&Gb3,&C4}{1/3,G3,Db4}{Gb3,C4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/8,&C5}{1/4,Eb5}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,Gb5}{1/4,E5& &E5}{1/4,F5}{3/8,D5& &D5 Eb5}{1/4,D5}{1/8,C5}{1/4,Bb4}{3/8,Ab4& &Ab4 A4}{1/4,C5}{1/8,Eb5}{1/4,G5}{1/4,Cb6& &Cb6}{1/4,D6}{1/8,Cb6&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{-- Ab4 G4&, 2 {Bb3,Eb4,E4}{A3&,D4&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/8,&Cb6}{1/4,C6}{3/8,G5& &G5 Ab5}{1/4,G5}{1/8,F5}{1/4,E5}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,Gb5}{1/4,E5& &E5}{1/4,F5}{3/8,G5& &G5 Eb5}{1/4,Db5}{1/8,C5}{1/4,Bb4}{1/4,A4& &A4}{1/4,Ab4}{1/8,C4&},-- 1/4 {1/2,- Db5& &Db5 -} 1/4 -}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&G4}{1/3,G4&}&G4&{1/4,&G4}{1,- Ab4& &Ab4 -- G4& &G4 -} 1/4 1/2,{2/3,&A3,&D4,&Eb4}{1/3,Ab3&,D4&}{&Ab3&,&D4&}{1/4,&Ab3,&D4} 1/8 {1/8,A3&,Eb4&}{1/8,&A3,&Eb4} 1/4 {1/8,Ab3&,D4&}{1/8,&Ab3,&D4} 1/8 1/4 1/2}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/8,&C4}{1/4,Eb4}{1/4,G4& &G4}{1/4,Gb4}{1/4,E4& &E4}{1/4,F4}{1/4,Ab4& &Ab4}{1/4,C5}{1/4,Eb5& &Eb5}{1/4,G5}{1/4,Ab5& &Ab5}{1/4,E5}{1/4,G5& &G5}{1/4,F5}{1/4,C5& &C5}{1/4,Eb5}{1/8,Db5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 1/2 1/8 {1/4,D4}{3/8,D4& &D4 -} 1/4 1/2 1/4 {1,- Ab4& &Ab4 -- G4& &G4 -} 1/4 1/2, 1/2 1/8 {1/4,Ab3}{3/8,Ab3& &Ab3 -} 1/4 1/2 1/4 1/8 {1/8,A3&,Eb4&}{1/8,&A3,&Eb4} 1/4 {1/8,Ab3&,D4&}{1/8,&Ab3,&D4} 1/8 1/4 1/2}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/8,&Db5}{1/4,D5}{1/4,C6& &C6}{1/4,Cb6}{1/4,A5& &A5}{1/4,Bb5}{3/8,Ab5& &Ab5 Bb5}{1/4,Ab5}{1/8,F5}{1/4,Db5}{1/4,Bb4& &Bb4}{1/4,F5}{1/4,D5& &D5}{1/4,Eb5}{3/8,F4& &F4 Ab4}{1/4,A4}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{- 1/3 {2/3,F4&}{2,&F4&},- 1/3 {2/3,Ab3&,Bb3&,Db4&}{2,&Ab3&,&Bb3&,&Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/8,C5}{1/4,Bb4}{1/4,F4& &F4}{1/4,Ab4}{1/4,Gb4& &Gb4}{1/4,G4}{1/4,F5& &F5}{1/4,Db5}{1/4,Bb4& &Bb4}{1/4,Eb5}{1/4,Eb4& &Eb4}{3/8,F4} 2/3 {1/3,Cb5&},-- 1/2 1/4 {3/8,- Ab4& &Ab4}{3/8,Cb5} 1/2,--- 2/3 {1/3,D4&},--- 1/8 {3/8,D4} 1/2}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&F4{2,F4}{1/3,Db4}{2/3,Ab4},--- 1/2 1/4 {1/4,- Db4&},{&Ab3,&Bb3,&Db4}{2,G3,Bb3,Db4} 1/3 {2/3,Db4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1,&Cb5 - Bb4} 1/2 1/4 {1/2,- F4& &F4 Bb4}{1/4,C5}{1/4,F5 Bb5}{1/4,C6}{1/6,F6 Gb6&}{1/3,&Gb6&}{1/4,&Gb6}{1/4,- Cb6&}, 1/8 {3/8,Bb4} 1/2 ---,{1,&D4 - Db4}---, 1/8 {3/8,Db4} 1/2 ---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 1/4 {1/2,- G3& &G3 -} 1/4 {2,C4}Db4&,&Db4 ---, 1 {2,Ab2,Eb3,F3}{A2&,E3&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){961/240,{{1/8,&Cb6}{1/4,Gb5}{1/4,Db5& &Db5}{1/4,Cb5}{1/4,Gb4& &Gb4}{1/4,G5}{1/4,F5& &F5}{1/4,C5}{1/4,Ab4& &Ab4}{1/4,G5}{1/4,F5& &F5}{3/8,C5}{23/80,- Ab5}43/60, 263/80 {23/160,Eb5}{137/480,Db5} 23/160 23/160, 1853/480 {23/160,Ab4&} 0,-- 1/2 1/4 {1/2,- Ab4& &Ab4 -} 1/4 1/8 {3/8,A4}1/240,--- 1/8 {3/8,Db5} 1/2 1/240}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&Db4 G4&{3/4,&G4}{1/4,Ab4&}{1,&Ab4 -},{&A2,&E3}{Ab3&,D4&}{3/4,&Ab3,&D4}{1/4,A3&,Eb4&}{1/2,&A3,&Eb4} 1/2}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){961/240,{{1/6,&Ab4}{1/2,Gb4}{1/3,A5} 1/4 {1/2,- G4& &G4 C5}{1/4,E5}{23/80,G5 C6}103/60, 183/80 {23/160,E6}{103/480,G6}{17/120,F6& &F6}{103/480,Eb6}{23/160,E6}103/120, 721/240 -, 151/48 {23/80,C6 G5}{103/480,F5}{17/120,Eb5& &Eb5}{103/480,E5} 0, 2/3 {1/3,G5}--- 1/240}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 1/3 {2/3,G4}{3/4,E4}{1/2,- E4& &E4 -}{3/4,-- G4&}&G4, 1/3 {2/3,A3,Eb4}{3/4,C3,G3} 1/8 {1/8,Cb4&,C4&}{1/8,&Cb4,&C4} 1/8 1/4 1/2 -}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/4,G5 C6}{1/4,C5}{1/4,F5 Eb5}{1/4,E5}{1,C5 F4 G4} 1/8 {1/4,C5}{1/4,C4& &C4}{3/8,A4} 1/12 {1/4,G4}{1/6,C4&}{1/2,&C4&},- 1/8 {3/4,G4 E4}{3/8,A4& &A4 -} 1/2 {1/2,- C4& &C4 -} 1/4 1/2,-- 1/2 1/8 {3/8,F4} 1/8 {3/8,E4} 1/2}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{1/8,Cb4}{3/8,C4&}{1/2,&C4}{1/6,Gb3 G3&}{1/3,&G3&}{1/2,&G3}--}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{23/160,&C4}{103/240,G3}823/240, 55/96 137/240 1/480 {137/480,C4}{103/240,Eb4}257/120, 223/120 {23/160,G4&}{1/5,&G4}9/5, 961/480 --, 1057/480 {1/5,C5}{4/5,Eb5 G5}{4/5,C6 Eb6& &Eb6 G6&} 0,--- 1/2 _tempo(64/15){1/2,- G5&}1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 1/12 {1/4,Cb3}{1/6,C3&}{1/4,&C3}{1/2,- Eb4& &Eb4 -} 1/4 1/2 2/3 {1/3,G4}-, 1/2 1/4 1/8 {1/8,Bb3&,C4&}{1/8,&Bb3,&C4} 1/8 1/4 1/2 2/3 {1/3,Bb3,C4,Eb4}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{107/480,&G6}{213/160,Bb6 G6 Eb6} 1/8 {13/24,C6}{71/40,G5 Eb5 C5 A4&}1/240, 959/240 1/240,{1/6,&G5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/3,G5}Eb5 --}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 2/3 {1/3,G4}- 2/3 {4/3,G4& &G4 - Ab4&}, 2/3 {1/3,Bb3,C4,Eb4}- 2/3 {1/3,Bb3&,C4&,Eb4&}{1/3,&Bb3,&C4,&Eb4} 1/3 {1/3,Bb3&,Eb4&,E4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{23/160,&A4}{103/240,G5}823/240, 55/96 {137/240,E5} 1/480 {103/240,F5}233/96, 151/96 {103/240,G5&}{1/5,&G5}9/5, 961/480 --, 1057/480 {1/5,Eb5}{8/5,D5 C5 G5 G4&} 0,- 2/3 {1/3,D5}- Cb5 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&Ab4}{1/3,G4&}{2,&G4}-,{2/3,&Bb3,&Eb4,&E4}{1/3,A3&,Eb4&}{2,&A3,&Eb4}-}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{107/480,&G4}{213/160,G5 G4 Ab4} 1/8 {13/24,F5}{71/40,E5 D5 Eb5 F5&}1/240, 959/240 1/240,Bb4 ---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{- 2/3 {1/3,G4&}{2,&G4&},- 2/3 {1/3,A3&,Eb4&}{2,&A3&,&Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{107/480,&F5}{213/160,G5 Bb5 Db6} 1/8 {13/24,D6}{71/40,Bb5 G5 F5 G5&}1/240, 959/240 1/240,--- 2/3 {1/3,Eb5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&G4}{1/3,F4}-- 2/3 {1/3,F4&},{2/3,&A3,&Eb4}{1/3,D4}-- 2/3 {1/3,A3,Bb3,D4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{107/480,&G5}{213/160,C5 F5 F5} 1/8 {13/24,F4}{71/40,G4 Bb4 Db5 Bb4&}1/240, 959/240 1/240,{1,&Eb5 - Db5}D5 - E4}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{1,&F4 - E4}F4 - 1/6 {1/2,F3}{1/3,F3}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{1/6,&Bb4}{1/2,C5}{1/3,Bb4&}&Bb4 G4{1/6,- F4&}{1/3,&F4&}{1/2,&F4},-- 1/2 1/4 {1/2,- Db4& &Db4 -} 1/4 1/2, 1/6 {1/2,Eb4}{1/3,D4&}&D4 Eb4 D4}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{F3 1/2 {1/6,- F3&}{1/3,&F3}--,- 1/4 {1/2,- E3& &E3 -} 1/4 --}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{3,Bb3&}{1/3,&Bb3 -}{2/3,- F4&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{- 1/2 {1/4,- E3}{3/4,F3& &F3 E3}{1/2,F3}F2}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{{107/480,&F4}{213/160,Bb4 C5 Db5} 1/8 {13/24,Eb5}{71/40,F5 Ab5 C6 Ab5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{ 2/3 {1/3,F4&}{3,&F4}, 2/3 {1/3,Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}{3,&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{1/6,&Ab5}{1/2,F5}{1/3,Db5}Bb4 23/160 {103/240,F5}343/240, 247/96 {137/240,D5} 1/480 {103/240,Eb5}41/96, 343/96 {103/240,F4&} 0, 4 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{F4 - F4 F4&,{Ab3,C4,Db4} 1 {Ab3,C4,Db4}{Ab3&,C4&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{{23/160,&F4}{103/240,Ab4}823/240, 55/96 {137/240,F4} 1/480 {103/240,G4}233/96, 151/96 {103/240,Eb5}- 1, 961/480 --, 1441/480 Db5& 0, 4 1/480}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&F4{2,F4&}{1/3,&F4 -}{2/3,- Gb4&},{&Ab3,&C4,&Db4}{2,G3&,Db4&}{1/6,&G3,&Db4} 1/6 1/3 {1/3,Ab3&,D4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{&Db5 -{2,F6},-- 1/6 {1/2,Cb6}{1/3,C6&}&C6}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&Gb4{2,F4&}{2/3,&F4}{1/3,F4&},{&Ab3,&D4}{2,G3&,Db4&}{2/3,&G3,&Db4}{1/3,G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,- 1/2 1/4 {1/2,- Cb6& &Cb6 -} 1/4 1/2 -,F5 Ab5{1/6,- C6&}{1/3,&C6&}{1/2,&C6}Ab5}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{1,&F4 -}{2,F4&}{2/3,&F4}{1/3,Gb4&},{1/2,&G3,&Db4} 1/2 {2,Gb3&,C4&}{2/3,&Gb3,&C4}{1/3,G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,-- 2/5 1/5 {3/5,Eb5}{4/5,Ab5 C6&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&Gb4{2,F4}Gb4&,{&G3,&Db4}{2,Gb3,C4}{G3&,Db4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,- 1/2 1/8 {3/8,Bb5}--,{107/480,&C6}{71/80,Ab5 Eb5}{2/3,Ab5}{71/160,Ab5} 1/8 {51/160,G5}{213/160,F5 Eb5 Db5&}1/240, 959/240 1/240}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&Gb4}{1/3,F4&}&F4 - 2/3 {1/3,Ab4&},{2/3,&G3,&Db4}{1/3,Gb3&,C4&}{&Gb3,&C4}- 2/3 {1/3,Bb3&,E4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{107/480,&Db5}{213/160,C5 Bb4 A4} 1/8 {13/24,G5}{71/40,Eb5 C5 F5 C5&}}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&Ab4{2,G4&}{2/3,&G4}{1/3,G4&},{&Bb3,&E4}{2,A3&,Eb4&}{2/3,&A3,&Eb4}{1/3,A3&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){1921/480,{-- 1/2 1/4 {1/2,- Db6& &Db6 -} 1/4 1/2 1/480,- 2/3 {1/3,G5}{1/2,C6} 1/8 {3/8,C6}{1/6,- F6&}{1/3,&F6} 1/8 {1/4,C6}{1/8,Db6&}1/480, 4 1/480,{23/160,&C5}{103/240,Eb5}823/240, 55/96 {137/240,Db5} 1/480 {103/240,D5}233/96, 151/96 {103/240,F5}Cb6 1, 961/480 - D6 0}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&G4}{1/3,G4&}{2,&G4&}{1/3,&G4 -}{2/3,- Ab4&},{2/3,&A3,&Eb4}{1/3,Ab3&,D4&}{2,&Ab3&,&D4&}{1/6,&Ab3,&D4} 1/6 1/3 {1/3,A3&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{107/240,&Db6 F6&}853/240, 107/240 {2/3,&F6}{71/160,Bb5} 1/480 {2/3,F5}{71/40,Eb5 Db5 D5 Bb4&},D6 ---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&Ab4}{1/3,G4&}{2,&G4&}{1/3,&G4 -}{2/3,- Ab4&},{2/3,&A3,&Eb4}{1/3,Ab3&,D4&}{2,&Ab3&,&D4&}{1/6,&Ab3,&D4} 1/6 1/3 {1/3,A3&,Eb4&}}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,{107/480,&Bb4}{213/160,G4 F4 Bb4} 1/8 {13/24,C4}{71/80,Bb4 C4}{427/480,Bb4&}1/480,- E4 Eb4 D4&}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{{2/3,&Ab4}{1/3,D4}--{1,- E3 F3&},{2/3,&A3,&Eb4}{1/3,Ab3}---}}}{_vel(64) _chan(1){4,{ 4,&Bb4 ---,&D4 ---}},_vel(64) _chan(2){4,{&F3 ---}}}

Another com­plex exam­ple is Beethoven’s Fugue in B flat major (opus 133). Played as a sin­gle item it takes no less than 372 sec­onds to com­pute, where­as PLAY safe deliv­ers it in 33 seconds.

Again, in this piece, the Javascript MIDIjs play­er can­not syn­the­size the two vio­lins, vio­la and cel­lo tracks (MIDI chan­nels 1 to 4). Therefore the MIDI file was sent to PianoTeq for a fair piano ren­der­ing of the mixed tracks.

Beethoven’s Fugue in B flat major — a piano ver­sion inter­pret­ed by the Bol Processor with the Pianoteq physical-model synthesizer

{_tempo(18/5) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{1,G3 G4}{2,G5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(64) _chan(2){3,{3,G3&,G4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,G3&,G4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,G2&,G3&}}} {_tempo(17/10) _vel(93) _chan(1){9/2,{{3,&G5}{3/2,G4&}}},_tempo(17/10) _vel(107) _chan(2){9/2,{{3,&G3,&G4}{3/2,G3&}}},_tempo(17/10) _vel(108) _chan(3){9/2,{{3,&G3,&G4}{3/2,G3&}}},_tempo(17/10) _vel(112) _chan(4){9/2,{{3,&G2,&G3}{3/2,G2&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&G4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,&G3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&G3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&G2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&G4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,&G3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&G3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&G2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,G#4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,G#3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,G#3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,G#2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,F5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,F3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,E5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,E4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,E4}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,E3}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,G#4}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,G#3}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,G#3}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,G#2}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{E5 1/2 C#6 1/2}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{E4 1/2 C#5 1/2}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{E4 1/2 C#5 1/2}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{E3 1/2 C#4 1/2}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{G5{1/4,F#5 G5}1/4 -- 1/2,{115/512,G5}{3/4,A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5}1/512 3/128 ---}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{G4{1/4,F#4 G4}1/4 -- 1/2,{115/512,G4}{3/4,A4 G4 A4 G4 A4 G4}1/512 3/128 ---}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{G4{1/4,F#4 G4}1/4 -- 1/2,{115/512,G4}{3/4,A4 G4 A4 G4 A4 G4}1/512 3/128 ---}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{G3{1/4,F#3 G3}1/4 -- 1/2,{115/512,G3}{3/4,A3 G3 A3 G3 A3 G3}1/512 3/128 ---}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{-{1/2,G4}G#4{1/2,F5}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{1/2,G3}G#3{1/2,F4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(95) _chan(3){3,{-{1/2,G3}G#3{1/2,F4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{-{1/2,G2}G#2{1/2,F3}}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{E5{1/2,G#4}A4{1/2,F#5}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{E4{1/2,G#3}A3{1/2,F#4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{E4{1/2,G#3}A3{1/2,F#4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{E3{1/2,G#2}A2{1/2,F#3}}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{G5 1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{G4 1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{G4 1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{G3 1/2 -- 1/2}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{-{1/2,B3}C4{1/2,Bb4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(98) _chan(2){3,{-{1/2,B3}C4{1/2,Bb4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{-{1/2,B3}C4{1/2,Bb4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{-{1/2,B2}C3{1/2,Bb3}}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{A4{1/2,C#4}D4{1/2,B4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{A4{1/2,C#4}D4{1/2,B4}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{A4{1/2,C#3}D3{1/2,B3}}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{A3{1/2,C#2}D2{1/2,B2}}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{C5 1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{C5 1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{C4 1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(4/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{C3 1/2 -- 1/2}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(52) _chan(1){2,{- F4}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(107) _chan(2) 2,_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(3) 2,_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{Gb4 Eb5}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(54) _chan(2){2,{- C4}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(52) _chan(3){2,{- A3}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(52) _chan(4){2,{- F3&}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{Db5 E4}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Db4&}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Bb3&}},_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,&F3&}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{F4 E5}},_tempo(5/3) 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A2}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- Eb4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-{1,F#4& &F#4}-{1,Eb5& &Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(95) _chan(2){4,{{1,C6& &C6}-{1,F#5& &F#5}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- A3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-{1,D5& &D5}-{1,F#4 G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{{1,G5& &G5}-{1,D6& &D6}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D3}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- D3}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-{3,G4& &G4 E5 F5 Eb5 Eb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{4,E5& &E5 C6& &C6 C6& &C6 F5& &F5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,D6& &D6 Eb6& &Eb6 D6& &D6 C6& &C6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,F5}{1/2,- A5}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- F#5}{1/2,F#5}{1/2,- A5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- F#4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- D3}{1/2,D3}{1/2,- D3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,B5& &B5 Bb5& &Bb5 A5& &A5 Ab5& &Ab5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,G5}{1/2,- D4}{3,Db4 C4 C4 C5 Cb5& &Cb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- F4}{1,E4 -}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1,G3 -}- 3/4{1/4,Eb3}{1/2,D3}{1/2,- F3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{5/2,G5& &G5 Gb5& &Gb5 F5}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{ 3/4{1/4,Eb4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{Eb3 ---}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,F5}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- Ab5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,D5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- F3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(4){4,{-{1,Bb2& &Bb2}-{1,Bb2& &Bb2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,D4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,B4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,F3}{1/2,- Eb3}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- D3}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- B3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-{1,B2& &B2}-{1,Ab3& &Ab3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- Gb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,G4}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-{1,G3& &G3}-{1,B2 C3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Gb5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- E5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,A4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,B4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,Gb4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-{3,C3& &C3 A3 Bb3 Bb3& &Bb3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,E5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{4,A3& &A3 Ab3& &Ab3 G3& &G3 Gb3& &Gb3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,C#5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,E5}{1/2,- F5}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- Ab4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- F#5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{4,F3& &F3 Eb3& &Eb3 D3& &D3 C4& &C4}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 3/4{1/4,Bb4}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- Ab5}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- B5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,F#5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,D4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{4,Bb3& &Bb3 Ab3& &Ab3 G3& &G3 G2& &G2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,B5}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- Eb6}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- Eb6}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- F6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{Eb5 - 3/4{1/4,G3}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,Eb3}3/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{4,Ab2& &Ab2 A2& &A2 Bb2& &Bb2 Bb3& &Bb3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,G6}{171/512,Eb4}{341/512,D4 C4}{171/512,Bb3}{341/512,Ab3 G3}{171/512,Db5}{341/512,C5 Bb4}{171/512,Ab4}{341/1024,G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- Db5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(3){4,{-{1,Eb4& &Eb4}-{1,Eb4& &Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{Eb4 ---}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,G4}{171/512,G3}{341/512,G4 G4}{171/512,B3}{341/512,C4 G4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,F4 F4}{171/512,Bb3}{341/1024,E4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Ab4}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{-{1,E4& &E4}-{1,Db5& &Db5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,F4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,B3 C4}{171/512,E4}{341/512,F4 C4}{171/512,F4}{341/512,G4 A4}{171/512,G4}{341/1024,A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- Ab3}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- Ab4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{-{1,C5& &C5}-{1,E4 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,Ab4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,D4 Eb4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,D4 F4}{171/512,Bb3}{341/512,G4 Bb3}{171/512,B3}{341/1024,C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Ab4}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{-{3,F4& &F4 D5 Eb5 Eb5& &Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-- 3/4{1/4,Eb2}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- F3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,C4}{171/512,D4}{341/1024,Bb4}{1,Bb3& &Bb3}-{1,Bb3& &Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,A4}{171/512,Bb4}{341/512,F4 D5}{171/512,C5}{341/512,Bb4 Ab5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,F5 Eb5}{171/512,D5}{341/1024,F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,D5}{171/512,D3}{341/512,F3 Bb3}{171/512,C4}{341/512,D4 D4}{171/512,Eb4}{341/512,F4 G4}{171/512,F4}{341/1024,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F3}{1/2,- D2}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- D2}{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- Ab3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-{1,B3& &B3}-{1,Ab4& &Ab4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,F5}{171/512,F4}{341/512,Eb5 Eb5}{171/512,D4}{341/512,D5 D5}{171/512,C4}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,F4}{341/1024,B4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- Ab4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- Eb3}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- D3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-{1,G4& &G4}-{1,B3 C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,B4}{171/512,G3}{341/512,C5 Ab5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,F5 F5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/512,D5 D5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/1024,Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{G4 ---}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- Eb2}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- Eb3}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- Eb2}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- Gb3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(95) _chan(1){4,{-{3,C4& &C4 A4 Bb4 Bb4& &Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(98) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,Eb5}{171/512,Ab4}{341/512,D5 D5}{171/512,G4}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,F4}{341/512,F5 F5}{171/512,F4}{341/1024,G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,G3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- Eb3}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- D3}{1/2,D3}{1/2,- E3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,Bb4 C5 C5& &C5 C5 Bb4 Eb5& &Eb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,G5}{171/512,C5}{341/512,G5 G5}{171/512,A4}{341/512,A5 A5}{171/512,Bb4}{341/512,Bb5 Bb5}{171/512,C5}{341/1024,C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F3}{1/2,- E3}{1/2,E3}{1/2,- F#3}{1/2,F#3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- A3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(97) _chan(1){4,{{2,D5 G5 G5& &G5}3/4{1/4,D4}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- D6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,D6}{171/512,G4}{341/512,D5 D5}{171/512,G4}{341/512,Eb5 Eb5}{171/512,C4}{341/512,A4 A4}{171/512,A3}{341/1024,F#4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,A3}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,B3}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,D6}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- F6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,G4}{171/512,G3}{341/1024,F5}{1,G4& &G4}-{1,G4& &G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{-- 3/4{1/4,G3}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,B3}{171/512,D4}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,B3}{341/512,Ab4 G4}{171/512,F4}{341/512,Eb4 D4}{171/512,C4}{341/1024,B3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,F6}{1/2,- Eb6}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- Db6}{1/2,Db6}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{-{1,Ab4& &Ab4}-{1,G5& &G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{C5 - 3/4{1/4,C3}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,C4}{171/512,C3}{341/512,Db3 C3}{171/512,Ab2}{341/512,Bb2 Bb2}{171/512,G2}{341/512,Ab2 Ab2}{171/512,F2}{341/1024,G2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- A5}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- Eb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{-{1,F#5& &F#5}-{1,F#4& &F#4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{D4 - 3/4{1/4,Gb3}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,G2}{171/512,E2}{341/512,Gb2 Eb3}{171/512,C#3}{341/512,D3 D3}{171/512,B2}{341/512,C3 D4}{171/512,B3}{341/1024,C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- B5}{1/2,B5}{1/2,- D6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{-{1,F4& &F4}-{1,F5& &F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{D5 - 3/4{1/4,D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,C4}{171/512,A3}{341/512,Bb3 Bb3}{171/512,G3}{341/512,Ab3 Ab3}{171/512,D3}{341/512,G3 G3}{171/512,G2}{341/1024,G3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{C6 - 3/4{1/4,D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,G5}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Eb4}D4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,G3}{171/512,Eb3}{341/512,G3 D3}{171/512,C3}{341/512,G3 C3}{171/512,B2}{341/512,G3 Ab2}{171/512,G2}{341/1024,B2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,E5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F#5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{ 3/4{1/4,G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- C5}C5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{C4 - 3/4{1/4,D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,C3}{171/512,B3}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,A3}{341/512,Bb3 Bb3}{171/512,G3}{341/512,A3 A3}{171/512,F#3}{341/1024,G3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- A5}{1/2,B5}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- C#6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- F6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{ 3/4{1/4,D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- G5}G5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{A4 - 3/4{1/4,G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,G3}{171/512,E3}{341/512,F#3 G3}{171/512,D2}{341/512,F2 F2}{171/512,D2}{341/512,E2 E2}{171/512,C#2}{341/1024,D2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,E6}{1/2,- E5}{1/2,E5}{1/2,- G5}{2,F5 - F#5 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{ 3/4{1/4,C#4}{1/2,C#4}{1/2,- E4}{2,D4 - D5 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{E5 - 3/4{1/4,A3}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,D2}{171/512,C#2}{341/512,A2 C#3}{171/512,A2}{341/512,E3 E3}{171/512,C#3}{341/512,D3 D3}{171/512,C3}{341/1024,A2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 3/4{1/4,D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- F4}{2,Eb4 - E4 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{2,D5 - G5 -}3/4{1/4,G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{5/2,Bb3 - B3 - C4}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- E3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,A2}{171/512,F#2}{341/512,G2 G2}{171/512,B2}{341/512,D3 D3}{171/512,B2}{341/512,C3 C3}{171/512,E3}{341/1024,G3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 3/4{1/4,F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- A5}{2,F#5 - G5 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{2,Ab4 - A4 -}{341/1024,Bb4}{171/512,B3}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,G4}{341/1024,Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{2,C4 - F3 -}3/4{1/4,Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- G3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,G3}{171/512,E3}{341/512,F3 D3}{171/512,B2}{341/1024,C3}{1/2,C3}{1/2,- E2}{1/2,E2}{1/2,- G2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,G#5 - A5 - D#6 - E6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,Bb4}{171/512,B3}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,F5}{341/512,C5 B4}{171/512,C5}{341/512,C6 A5}{171/512,C6}{341/1024,Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C3}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(4){4,{4,E2 - F2 - F#2 - G2 -}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(1){4,{F6{1,F5& &F5}-{1,F5& &F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,B5}{171/512,D6}{341/512,C6 C6}{171/512,E6}{341/512,F6 E5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,F5 A5}{171/512,Bb5}{341/1024,C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,A2}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-{1,F#5& &F#5}-{1,Eb6& &Eb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,Gb5}{171/512,A5}{341/512,G5 C6}{171/512,D5}{341/512,Eb5 A5}{171/512,C6}{341/512,Bb5 B5}{171/512,D6}{341/1024,C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F#4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-{1,D6& &D6}-{1,F#5 G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,A5}{171/512,C6}{341/512,Bb5 D5}{171/512,F#5}{341/512,G5 A5}{171/512,C6}{341/512,Bb5 D5}{171/512,D6}{341/1024,D6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,G4}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-{3,G5& &G5 E6& &E6 F6& &F6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,D4}{171/512,E5}{341/512,F5 D5}{171/512,F5}{341/512,E5 G5}{171/512,D6}{341/512,C6 C6}{171/512,F5}{341/1024,G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,D5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A2}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C3}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{3,F#6& &F#6 F#5& &F#5 F#4& &F#4}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,A5}{171/512,D6}{341/512,C6 B5}{171/512,D6}{341/512,C6 A5}{171/512,C6}{341/512,Bb5 G5}{171/512,Bb5}{341/1024,A5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,Bb4}{171/512,B4}{341/512,C5 D5}{171/512,B4}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,A4}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,G4}{341/1024,A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- A2}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{3,G6& &G6 G5& &G5 G3& &G3}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,C6}{171/512,Eb6}{341/512,D6 Bb4}{171/512,D5}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/512,D5 F#5}{171/512,A5}{341/1024,G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,Eb4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,D4 D4}{171/512,B3}{341/512,C4 Eb4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,D4 Eb3}{171/512,C#3}{341/1024,D3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{3,D6& &D6 Bb4& &Bb4 E4& &E4}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,F#4}{171/512,A4}{341/512,G4 A5}{171/512,C6}{341/512,Bb5 G5}{171/512,Bb5}{341/512,A5 F5}{171/512,A5}{341/1024,G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,C4}{171/512,A3}{341/512,Bb3 C5}{171/512,A4}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,G4}{341/512,A4 A4}{171/512,F4}{341/1024,G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,C6& &C6 F5& &F5 D6& &D6 G4& &G4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,E5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,F5 C5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/512,D5 F5}{171/512,Ab5}{341/512,G5 D5}{171/512,F5}{341/1024,E5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,G4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,F4 Eb4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,D4 F4}{171/512,D4}{341/512,G4 F4}{171/512,D3}{341/1024,E3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- B3}{1/2,B3}{1/2,- C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,D5& &D5 G5& &G5 E6& &E6 A4& &A4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,F4}{171/512,Ab4}{341/512,G4 D5}{171/512,F5}{341/512,E5 E5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,E5 E5}{171/512,G5}{341/1024,F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,F4}{171/512,D4}{341/512,G4 F4}{171/512,D4}{341/512,E4 G4}{171/512,E4}{341/512,A4 G4}{171/512,E4}{341/1024,F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- B3}{1/2,B3}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C#4}{1/2,C#4}{1/2,- D4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,E5& &E5 A5& &A5 G6& &G6 G5 A5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,Bb4}{171/512,G4}{341/1024,E4}F4 3/4{1/4,G4}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- A5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,G4}{171/512,E4}{341/512,A4 G4}{171/512,E4}{341/512,F4 D5}{171/512,B4}{341/512,Db5 E5}{171/512,Db5}{341/1024,D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C#4}{1/2,C#4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- F4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1,A6& &A6}{1/2,A3&,F#4&}{1/2,&A3,&F#4}3/4{1/4,A4}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- Eb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,A5}{1/2,- F#4}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- A5}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- F#4}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,Eb5}{171/512,C5}{341/512,A4 Eb4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,A3 B3}{171/512,D4}{341/512,C4 G3}{171/512,Bb3}{341/1024,A3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(4){4,{F#4{3,C2& &C2 F#3& &F#3 F#4& &F#4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- F#6}{1/2,F#6}{1/2,- G6}{1/2,G6}{1/2,- A6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,C6}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- A5}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F#5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,Gb3}{171/512,A3}{341/512,Bb3 G3}{171/512,D4}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,C5}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,D5}{341/1024,C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(94) _chan(4){4,{-{3,D2& &D2 D3& &D3 D4& &D4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{Bb6 - 3/4{1/4,G5}{1/2,G6}{1/2,- G6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,G5}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,A4}{171/512,C5}{341/512,Bb4 D3}{171/512,F3}{341/512,E3 A3}{171/512,C4}{341/512,Bb3 D4}{171/512,F4}{341/1024,E4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-{3,C#2& &C#2 C#3& &C#3 C#4& &C#4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,G6}{1/2,- C#6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- E6}{1/2,E6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- E6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- A5}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,D3}{171/512,F3}{341/512,E3 B3}{171/512,D4}{341/512,C#4 B4}{171/512,D5}{341/512,C#5 C#5}{171/512,E5}{341/1024,D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-{3,A2& &A2 A4& &A4 Bb4& &Bb4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,E6}{1/2,- E6}{1/2,E6}{1/2,- F#6}G6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,G5}{1/2,- A5}{1/2,A5}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- E5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,B4}{171/512,D5}{341/512,C#5 B4}{171/512,D5}{341/512,C5 A4}{171/512,C5}{341/512,B4 A4}{171/512,C5}{341/1024,Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{4,A4& &A4 A4& &A4 G4& &G4 G4& &G4}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 3/4{1/4,C#6}{1/2,C#6}{1/2,- D6}E6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{F5 -{1/2,A3}{1/2,- B4}{1/2,B4}{1/2,- C#5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,A4}{171/512,Bb4}{341/512,G4 G4}{171/512,A4}{341/1024,F4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F4}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,C#4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- E4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 3/4{1/4,C#5}{1/2,C#5}{1/2,- D5}E5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,D5}{1/2,- E5}{1/2,E5}{1/2,- F5}G5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{F4 -{1/2,E#4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{D4 -{1/2,C#4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 3/4{1/4,E6}{1/2,E6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,G6}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{ 3/4{1/4,G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- A5}Bb5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,G4& &G4 F4& &F4 E4& &E4 E4& &E4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{4,E4& &E4 D4& &D4 C#4& &C#4 C4& &C4}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Ab5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- E5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{ 3/4{1/4,E4}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Ab5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,E5& &E5 E4& &E4 E3& &E3 Db4& &Db4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{3,C2& &C2 C3& &C3 C4& &C4}-}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,E5}{1/2,- Ab4}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- G4}G4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- E5}E5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C3}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Ab3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-{3/2,C2 C2 C3}{1/2,- C2}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{-- 3/4{1/4,C5}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{ 3/4{1/4,C5}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Ab5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- F3}F3 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Ab3}{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- F3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,C6}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Ab5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- E5}{1/2,E5}{1/2,- F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{-- 3/4{1/4,C4}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F3}{1/2,- C2}{1/2,C3}{1/2,- C3}{1/2,C3}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- Ab2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{F5 - 3/4{1/4,E4}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Ab4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Ab4}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Ab2}{1/2,- G2}{1/2,G2}{1/2,- F2}{1/2,F2}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- F4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,Db6}{1/2,- C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{Bb4 -{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,E4}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- E3}{1/2,E3}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,G4}{1/2,- Db2}{1/2,Db2}{1/2,- C2}C2 -}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,C6}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- D6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{A4 -{1/2,A4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F#4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,F4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,F#3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- A3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,G3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- Eb3}D3 -}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,D6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- F6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Gb4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,B4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,A3}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,B3}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- Ab3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- A3}G#3 -}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,F6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,Gb6}{1/2,- Gb6}{1/2,Gb6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,G6}{1/2,- G6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,A4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- Gb4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,A3}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,A4}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- G3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,- B2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,G6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,G#6}{1/2,- G#6}{1/2,G#6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,A6}{1/2,- A6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,D5}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,D3}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,B2}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- A2}{1/2,A2}{1/2,- G2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,A6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,Bb6}{1/2,- G6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- G6}{1/2,A6}{1/2,- A6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- Db5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,A3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,- E4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(108) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F#2}{1/2,- G2}{1/2,G2}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- A2}{1/2,G2}{1/2,- G2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,A6}{1/2,- Eb6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- E6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- Db5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- A3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F#2}{1/2,- F2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- A2}{1/2,A2}{1/2,- A2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{D6 ---}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{D5 - 3/4{1/4,G3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,D3}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- F4}{2,Eb4 - E4 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{D3 ---}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 3/4{1/4,G4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{2,Ab4 - A4 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,A3}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- D4}{2,Cb4 - C4 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,F4}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- E3}{2,F3 - Eb3 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-- 3/4{1/4,D3}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- F4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(100) _chan(1){4,{4,Bb3 Bb4& &Bb4 -- Bb4& &Bb4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,F5 Eb5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,D5 C5}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,Ab5 G5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,Eb5 D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{D3 ---}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F4}{1/2,- D3}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- D3}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- Ab4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(95) _chan(1){4,{4,- B4& &B4 -- G5& &G5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,D5 Eb5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,Eb5 F5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{-- 1/2{1/2,Ab4 G4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,Eb4 D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,F4 Eb4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,C4 B3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,- G5& &G5 -- B4& &B4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,E5}{1/2,- E4}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1,C4 - Ab3 G3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,Eb3 D3}{1/2,C3}{1/2,D3 E3}{1/2,D3}{1/2,E3 F3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,F2 G2}{1/2,G2}{1/2,A2 B2}{1,C3 -}-}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{5/2,- C5& &C5 A5 Bb5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,C5 D5}{1/2,E5}{1/2,F5 G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,E3}{1/2,F3 G3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,D4 C4}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,E3 F3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,A3 Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{-- 1/2{1/2,Bb2 A2}{1/2,G2}{1/2,F2 E2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,C6}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- Eb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,A5 F5& &F5 -- F5& &F5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{A3 ---}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F2}{1/2,D3 C3}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,A2 G2}{1/2,A2}{1/2,D4 C4}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,A3 G3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{3/2,- C6 Bb5 - Eb5 D5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,Bb4 A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,- F#5& &F#5 -- D6& &D6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{-- 3/4{1/4,G3}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F#3}{1/2,G3 A3}{1/2,D3}{1/2,E3 F#3}{2,G3 -- G4&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,G4}{1/2,D5 C5}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,G4 F4}{1/2,E4}{1/2,Db5 C5}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,G4 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,- D6 G5 -- G5& &G5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- Db5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,&G4}-{1,C4& &C4}-{1/2,C4&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,E4}{1/2,Bb4 C5}{1/2,Db5}{1/2,D5 E5}{1/2,Gb5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,- G5& &G5 C6& &C6 F5& &F5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}A4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,&C4}-{1,F3& &F3}-{1/2,Bb3&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{D5 -{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Db5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,- F5& &F5 Bb5& &Bb5 Eb5& &Eb5 Eb5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Cb5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Ab4}G4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(98) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,&Bb3}-{1,Eb3& &Eb3}-{1/2,Bb2&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{C5 -{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- Db6}{1/2,Db6}{1/2,- C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,&Eb5}{1/2,F5 G5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,Bb5 C6}{1/2,Db6}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{ 3/4{1/4,C3}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,Bb3 C4}{1/2,Db4}{1/2,Db4 Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,&Bb2}{1/2,- Ab2}{1/2,Ab2}{1/2,- Gb2}F2{1,- Ab2&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,C6}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Ab5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{2,Db4 - D4 Eb4 F4 - G4 Ab4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Ab3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,F4}{1/2,Bb3 C4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,Eb4 F4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,Bb3 C4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,Eb4 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,&Ab2}{1/2,- G2}{1/2,G2}{1/2,- F2}{1/2,Eb2}{1/2,G2 Ab2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,C3 Db3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- Db5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,Eb5 F5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,Ab5 Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{G3 - 3/4{1/4,C4}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,G4}{1/2,G3 Ab3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,C4 Db4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,Ab3 G3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,Eb3 Db3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,Eb2 F2}{1/2,G2}{1/2,Ab2 Bb2}{1/2,Ab2}{1/2,F3 Eb3}{1/2,Db3}{1/2,C3 Bb2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,C6}{1/2,G5 Ab5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,C6 Db6}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,Ab5 Bb5}{1/2,C6}{1/2,C6 Db6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,Gb5}{1/2,- Gb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C3}{1/2,C5 Bb4}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,G4 F4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,Ab4 G4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,Eb4 Db4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Ab2}{1/2,Ab3 G3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,Eb3 Db3}{1/2,C3}{1/2,F3 Eb3}{1/2,Db3}{1/2,C3 Bb2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,Eb6 F6}{1/2,Gb6}{1/2,- Gb6}F6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Gb5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C4}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,A2}{1/2,Bb2 C3}{1/2,F2}{1/2,G2 A2}{1/2,A2}{1/2,C3 F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,G3 A3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 3/4{1/4,D4}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- Ab5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,G4 Ab4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,Eb4 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,F3 Bb3}{1/2,C4}{1/2,D4 Eb4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,Eb4 F4}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,C3 D3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,Eb4 Bb4}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,D4 Bb4}{1/2,G3}{1/2,Eb4 Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,Bb3 C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Ab3}{5/2,- Ab4 Bb4 - Eb4 F4 G4 - G4 Ab4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Eb2}{1/2,- G2}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- G2}{1/2,Db4}{1/2,- Db4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,G5}{1/2,- Ab5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- Bb5}Bb5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Db5}{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/4,Bb4}1/2{1/4,Eb4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Db4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- Ab3}{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- G3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- Db6}{1/2,Db6}{1/2,- Db4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- Ab3}{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,G3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- Eb3}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- Eb2}{1/2,E2}{1/2,- E2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(1){4,{4,C4 E5& &E5 -- Db6& &Db6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Ab5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,F5}{1/2,- E5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,F4 -- C3& &C3 -- Bb3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(108) _chan(4){4,{4,E3 C2& &C2 -- Bb2& &Bb2 -}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{ 1/2{1/2,G5&,G6&}{1/2,&G5,&G6}{5/2,-- C6& &C6 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,E5}{1/2,- Db5}{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(98) _chan(3){4,{4,&Bb3 -- E3 F3 -- F3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{3,- E2& &E2 - F2& &F2}-}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,A5}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- Eb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,F4 F5& &F5 - Eb6& &Eb6 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,&F3 -- F4& &F4 -- C5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,D4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,- A3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- G6}{1/2,A6}{1/2,- Bb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,- A5& &A5 -- Bb5& &Bb5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,&C5 -- C4& &C4 -- F4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,A3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,G3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- Eb3}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- D3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Ab6}{1/2,- G6}{1/2,G6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- Eb6}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- D6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,D4}{1/2,- Eb4}{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- Ab4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(3){4,{4,&F4 Bb3& &Bb3 -- Ab4& &Ab4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,D3}-{1,Bb2& &Bb2}-{1/2,F3&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,D6}{1/2,- C6}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- Bb5}{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- Ab5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,- D4& &D4 -- Eb4& &Eb4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{4,&F3 -- F2& &F2 -- Eb2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(1){4,{4,G3 G5& &G5 -- F6& &F6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,F5}-{1,G4& &G4}-{1/2,F5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,F4}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- B4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,D2}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,C4}{1/2,- B3}{1/2,B3}{1/2,- Ab3}{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- G3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,- B5& &B5 -- C6& &C6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,&F5}-{1,C5& &C5}-{1/2,C5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,B4}{1/2,- Ab4}{1/2,Ab4}{1/2,- G4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- E4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,G3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- Eb3}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,- D3}{1/2,Db3}{1/2,- C3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,- C6& &C6 -- D6& &D6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,&C5}{1/2,- Eb5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- F5}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,D5}{1/2,- Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,Eb4}{1/2,- Gb4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- Bb4}{1/2,Bb4}1/4{1/4,G4,Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,C3}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- A2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- Eb3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(1){4,{{2,- F6& &F6 A6}{341/1024,Bb6}{171/512,D4}{341/512,F5 F5}{171/512,D4}{341/1024,F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1/2,Bb5}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}- 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,F4,Bb4}1/4{1/4,Eb4,Bb4}{1/2,D4,Bb4}1/4{1/4,C4,F4}{1/2,Bb3,F4}- 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,D3}{1/2,- C3}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- Eb2}{1/2,D2}- 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,F5}{171/512,D4}{341/512,F5 F5}{171/512,D4}{341/512,Ab5 Ab5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,F5 F5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/1024,D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4},_tempo(34/15) _vel(100) _chan(3){4,{4,- Bb3& &Bb3 Bb3 B3 Ab4& &Ab4 G4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,Eb5}{171/512,Eb4}{341/512,Eb5 Eb5}{171/512,Eb4}{341/512,G5 G5}{171/512,F5}{341/512,Eb5 Eb5}{171/512,D5}{341/1024,E5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{--- 341/1024{171/512,Bb3}{341/1024,C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,&G4 B3& &B3 C4 A4 Bb4& &Bb4 Bb4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,F5}{171/512,C5}{341/512,A5 A5}{171/512,C5}{341/512,C6 C6}{171/512,Bb5}{341/512,A5 A5}{171/512,G5}{341/1024,G#5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,C5}{171/512,A3}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,A3}{341/512,Eb5 Eb5}{171/512,D5}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,Bb4}{341/1024,A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1,A4 -}---}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(100) _chan(4){4,{4,- F3& &F3 F3 F#3 Eb4& &Eb4 D4&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3755/1024,{{341/1024,G5}{171/512,D5}{341/512,D6 D6}{171/512,D5}{341/512,Bb5 Bb5}{171/512,A5}{341/1024,G5}{57/256,G5}{227/1024,F5}{57/256,A5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,Bb4}{171/512,Bb3}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,Bb3}{341/512,D5 D5}{171/512,C5}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,A4}{341/1024,C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{--- 341/1024{171/512,Eb3}{341/1024,F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{4,&D4 F#3& &F#3 G3& &G3 E4 Eb4 Eb4}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,Bb5}{171/512,F5}{341/512,D5 Bb4}{171/512,F4}{341/512,D4 D4}{171/512,Eb4}{341/512,F4 F4}{171/512,G4}{341/1024,F4,B4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,Bb4 Bb4& &Bb4 Bb4 B4 Ab5& &Ab5 G5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,F4}{171/512,D3}{341/512,F4 F4}{171/512,D3}{341/512,Ab4 Ab4}{171/512,G4}{341/512,F4 F4}{171/512,Eb4}{341/1024,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1,D4 -}---}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,C5}{171/512,G3}{341/512,G4 G4}{171/512,G3}{341/512,Eb4 Eb4}{171/512,D4}{341/512,C4 C5}{171/512,Bb4}{341/1024,G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,&G5 C5& &C5 C5& &C5 A5 Bb5 Bb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,Eb4}{171/512,Eb3}{341/512,Eb4 Eb4}{171/512,Eb3}{341/512,G4 G4}{171/512,F4}{341/512,Eb4 Eb4}{171/512,D4}{341/1024,E4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{--- 341/1024{171/512,Bb2}{341/1024,C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(1){4,{4,A4 F5& &F5 F5 F#5 Eb6& &Eb6 Eb6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,A5}{171/512,C6}{341/512,F4 F4}{171/512,C5}{341/512,A3 F#4}{171/512,G4}{341/512,F#5 F#5}{171/512,G5}{341/1024,C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,F4}{171/512,C3}{341/512,A4 A4}{171/512,C3}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,Bb4}{341/512,A4 A4}{171/512,G4}{341/1024,Gb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,C4}{171/512,A2}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,A2}{341/512,Eb4 Eb4}{171/512,D4}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,Bb3}{341/1024,A3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{4,D6 G5& &G5 G5& &G5 E6 Eb6 Eb6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,Bb5}{171/512,G3}{341/512,G4 G4}{171/512,G4}{341/512,G5 G5}{171/512,A5}{341/512,Bb5 C6}{171/512,C5}{341/1024,A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,G4}{171/512,Db3}{341/512,C#4 D4}{171/512,D3}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,A4}{341/512,G4 Gb4}{171/512,F4}{341/1024,Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,Bb3}{171/512,Bb2}{341/512,Bb3 Bb3}{171/512,Bb2}{341/512,D4 D4}{171/512,C4}{341/512,Bb3 Bb3}{171/512,A3}{341/1024,C4}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,D6}{171/512,C6}{341/512,Bb5 Bb5}{171/512,A5}{341/512,C6 Bb5}{171/512,A5}{341/512,G5 Ab5}{171/512,G5}{341/1024,F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{4,F4 D5& &D5 D5& &D5 Bb5 Ab5 Ab5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,F4}{171/512,F#4}{341/512,G4 G4}{171/512,D4}{341/512,F#4 G4}{171/512,D4}{341/512,Eb4 D4}{171/512,Eb4}{341/1024,F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,Bb3}{171/512,A3}{341/512,G3 G3}{171/512,F#3}{341/512,A3 G3}{171/512,F3}{341/512,Eb3 F3}{171/512,Eb3}{341/1024,D3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,G5}{171/512,F6}{341/512,Eb6 Eb6}{171/512,D6}{341/512,F6 Eb6}{171/512,D6}{341/512,C6 D6}{171/512,C6}{341/1024,Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,G5}{171/512,B3}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,D4}{341/1024,B3}{2,C4 F4 Bb3 F4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,Bb3 G4& &G4 G4& &G4 Eb5 D5 D5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,Eb3}{171/512,D3}{341/512,C3 C3}{171/512,B2}{341/512,D3 C3}{171/512,Bb2}{341/512,A2 Bb2}{171/512,A3}{341/1024,G3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,C6}{171/512,Bb5}{341/512,A5 Ab5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,Bb5 Ab5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,F5 G5}{171/512,F5}{341/1024,Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{4,&F4 C5& &C5 C5& &C5 Ab5 G5 G5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,C5}{171/512,E4}{341/512,F4 F4}{171/512,G4}{341/512,C4 C4}{171/512,F4}{341/512,Bb3 Bb3}{171/512,Eb4}{341/1024,Ab3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,A3}{171/512,G3}{341/512,F3 F3}{171/512,Eb3}{341/512,G3 F3}{171/512,Eb3}{341/512,D3 Eb3}{171/512,D3}{341/1024,C3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,F5}{171/512,Eb6}{341/512,D6 Eb6}{171/512,D6}{341/512,C6 D6}{171/512,C6}{341/512,B5 C6}{171/512,Bb5}{341/1024,A5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{1,F5 -}-{2,- F5& &F5 F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(3){4,{4,D4 F4& &F4 F4& &F4 D5 C5 Eb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,D3}{171/512,C3}{341/512,B2 C3}{171/512,Bb2}{341/512,A2 Bb2}{171/512,A2}{341/512,G#2 A2}{171/512,G2}{341/1024,F2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,D6}{171/512,C5}{341/512,B4 Eb5}{171/512,D5}{341/512,C5 F5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/512,D5 G5}{171/512,F5}{341/1024,E5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){4,{4,D6 F5 E5 G5 F5 Ab5 G5 Bb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(94) _chan(3){4,{4,D5 D4 C4 E4 D4 F4 Eb4 G4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,Bb2}{171/512,A2}{341/512,G2 C3}{171/512,Bb2}{341/512,A2 D3}{171/512,C3}{341/512,Bb2 Eb3}{171/512,D3}{341/1024,C3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{341/1024,A5}{171/512,G5}{341/512,F#5 Bb5}{171/512,A5}{341/512,G5 C6}{171/512,Bb5}{341/512,A5 D6}{171/512,Eb6}{341/1024,C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(94) _chan(2){4,{4,A5 C6 Bb5 D6 C6 C5 Bb4 A4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{4,F4 A4 D4 Bb4 F4 A3 G3 Eb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{341/1024,F3}{171/512,Eb3}{341/512,D3 G3}{171/512,F3}{341/512,E3 A3}{171/512,G3}{341/512,F3 G3}{171/512,Eb3}{341/1024,F3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,F6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,Ab6}{1/2,- Ab6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,F5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/512,D5 D5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,D5}{341/512,Bb4 Ab4}{171/512,G4}{341/1024,F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{341/1024,Ab3}{171/512,G3}{341/512,F3 F3}{171/512,G3}{341/512,Eb3 Eb3}{171/512,D3}{341/512,F3 F3}{171/512,Eb3}{341/1024,D3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- Bb2}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- D4}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- B2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,Ab6}{1/2,- G6}{1/2,G6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- Eb6}{1/2,E6}{1/2,- G6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,F4}{171/512,G4}{341/512,Eb4 Eb4}{171/512,F4}{341/1024,D4}C4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{D3 -{341/1024,D5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/512,C5 C5}{171/512,Db5}{341/1024,C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,G2}{1/2,- B3}{1/2,G2}{1/2,- G2}{1/2,C2}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- Bb2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{1/2,G6}{1/2,- F6}{1/2,F6}{1/2,- Eb6}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- D6}{1/2,D6}{1/2,- Eb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,Eb4}{171/512,F4}{341/512,D4 D4}{171/512,Eb4}{341/1024,Bb3}{1/2,A3}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,F4}1/4{1/4,F4,A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{1/2,C5}{1/2,- D5}{1/2,Bb4}{1/2,- Bb4}{341/1024,C5}{171/512,D5}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,B4}{341/1024,C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,A2}{1/2,- Ab2}{1/2,Ab3}{1/2,- G3}{1/2,Gb3}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F2}{1/2,- F3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{2,Eb6&}{1/2,&Eb6}{1/2,- A4}{1/2,Eb6}{1/2,- Eb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,B5}{171/512,C6}{341/512,A5 G5}{171/512,A5}{341/1024,F5}C6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{C4 -{341/1024,B3}{171/512,C4}{341/512,A3 G3}{171/512,A3}{341/1024,F3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,F2}{1/2,- F3}{1/2,F2}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,A2}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,F3}{1/2,- F2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{2,Eb6&}{1/2,&Eb6}{1/2,- A3}{1/2,Eb5}{1/2,- Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{341/1024,Eb5}{171/512,F5}{341/512,D5 D5}{171/512,Eb5}{341/1024,C5}A5 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{A3 -{341/1024,D3}{171/512,Eb3}{341/512,C3 B3}{171/512,C4}{341/1024,A3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{{1/2,Gb2}{1/2,- Gb3}{1/2,Ab2}{1/2,- Ab3}{1/2,C3}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,Gb3}{1/2,- Gb2}}}} {_tempo(113/60) _vel(93) _chan(1){5,{{1/2,Db5}{1/2,- Bb4}Db6&{1/2,&Db6}{1/2,- G3}{2,Db5&}}},_tempo(21/10) _vel(107) _chan(2){4437/1024,{{341/1024,C5}{171/512,Db5}{341/512,Bb4 Ab4}{171/512,Bb4}{341/512,Gb4 Db5}{171/512,Bb4}{341/512,Gb4 F4}{171/512,Gb4}{341/512,Bb3}}},_tempo(21/10) _vel(93) _chan(3){4437/1024,{Bb3 -{341/1024,Cb4}{171/512,Db4}{341/512,Bb3 Ab3}{171/512,Bb3}{341/512,Gb3}}},_tempo(32/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){17/4,{{1/2,Gb2}{1/2,- Gb3}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- Bb3}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,- Db4}{1/2,Gb3}1/4{1/2,Gb2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1,&Db5 C4 Db4 Cb5}{1,Bb4 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(2){2,{-{1,- Bb3 Cb4 Ab4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(3) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1,- Ab3 Bb3 Gb4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,Db5 Cb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1,Gb4 -}{1,- G3 Ab3 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Cb5 Bb4 Bb5 Ab5 Ab5 Gb5 Db6 Cb6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(4){2,{2,Bb5 Bb5 Bb5 Bb5 Bb5 Bb5 Bb5 Bb5}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Cb6 Bb5 Eb6 Db6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Bb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Gb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(3){2,{{1,- Gb3 C4 Db4}{1,Db4 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Bb5}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Db6 Cb6 Eb6 Db6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Bb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1,F4 Ab4 Ab4 Ab4}Ab4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Cb6}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Bb5 Ab5 Gb5 F5 Eb5 Db5 Eb5 Cb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{3/2,Ab4}{1/2,F4 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{{1,- C3 Db3 Db4}{1,Db4 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{3/2,Cb6}{1/2,Ab5 Ab5}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1,Bb4 -}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1,Gb4 -}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{ 1/2{3/2,Bb3 Ab3 Ab3 Gb3 Db4 Cb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{1,Bb5 -}-}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{ 1/2{3/2,Db5 Cb5 Cb5 Bb4 Bb5 Ab5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{{1,Bb3 -}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{ 1/2{3/2,Bb5 Ab5 Ab5 Gb5 Db6 Cb6}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1,Gb5 -}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{ 1/2{3/2,Bb4 Ab4 Ab4 Gb4 Db5 Cb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(39) _chan(3){2,{- Gb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{1,Bb5 -}-}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Cb5 Bb4 Eb5 Db5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{G3 Fb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Db5 Cb5 Eb5 Db5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{Eb4 G3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Bb4 Ab4 Gb4 F4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Cb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{Ab3 F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(1){2,{ 1/2{3/2,F5 Eb5 Eb5 Db5 Ab5 Gb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1,Bb3 -}Db4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Gb4 Bb4 Ab4 Gb4 Gb4 F4 F4 Gb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Gb5 F5 Bb5 Ab5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 F5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{D4 Cb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Bb4 Ab4 Gb4 F4 F4 Eb4 F4 D4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Ab5 Gb5 Bb5 Ab5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 F5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{Bb4 D4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,F4 Eb4 Gb4 F4 F4 Ab4 F4 Ab4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,F5 Eb5 Db5 C5 Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 Gb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{Eb4 C5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Ab4 Gb4 F4 Eb4 Gb4 F4 Gb4 Eb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1,F4 -}{1,- F5 Eb5 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{3/2,Db5 Gb4 F4 G3 Ab3 -}1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{Db4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 2} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1/2,Gb4 -}1{1/2,Ab4 Gb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,- Eb5 Db5 Eb4 F4 Db5 C5 Eb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{-{1,- F4 Eb4 C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(4){2,{ 3/2{1/2,Ab5&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Gb4 F4 F5 Eb5 Eb5 Db5 Ab5 Gb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1,F4 F4 F4 F4}F4,-{1,F4 F4 F4 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{{1,Db4 Db4 Db4 Db4}Db4,-{1,Db4 Db4 Db4 Db4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{1,&Ab5 Ab5 Ab5 Ab5}Ab5,-{1,Ab5 Ab5 Ab5 Ab5}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Gb5 F5 Bb5 Ab5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 F5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{2,F4},{2,F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{{2,Db4},{2,Db4 Db4 Db4 Db4 Db4 Db4 Db4 Db4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{1,Ab5 C5 Db5 Ab5}{1,Ab5 -}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Ab5 Gb5 Bb5 Ab5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 F5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{2,Gb4},{2,Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{{2,Eb4},{2,Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{2,Ab5},{2,Ab5 Ab5 Ab5 Ab5 Ab5 Ab5 Ab5 Ab5}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,F5 Eb5 Db5 C5 Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 Gb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{2,Gb4},{2,Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4 Gb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{{2,Eb4},{2,Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{1,Ab5 G5 Ab5 C6}C6,-{1,C6 C6 C6 C6}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1/2,F4}{3/2,F5 Eb5 Eb5 Db5 Ab5 Gb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1,Db4 -}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{{1,F4 -}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{1,Db6 -}-}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1,F5 -}-}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{ 1/2{3/2,Bb4 Ab4 Ab4 Gb4 Db5 Cb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{ 1/2{3/2,Db6 Cb6 Cb6 Bb5 Bb5 Ab5}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1/2,Bb4}{3/2,Bb4 Ab4 Ab4 Gb4 Bb3 Ab3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{ 1/2{3/2,Db4 Cb4 Cb4 Bb3 Db5 Cb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(4){2,{{1,Gb5 -}Gb2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1,Bb3 -}G3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Cb5 Bb4 Eb5 Db5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{G2 Fb3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{Ab3 Bb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Db5 Cb5 Eb5 Db5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{Eb3 G2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 2,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{Cb4&{1,&Cb4 Bb3 Cb4 Ab3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Bb4 Ab4 Gb4 F4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Cb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{Ab2 F3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(1){2,{- Db5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{{1/2,Bb3}{3/2,F4 Eb4 Eb4 Db4 Ab4 Gb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{{1,Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 C4}{1,Ab3 F3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{1,Gb3 F3 Gb3 Ab3}{1,F3 Db3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{D5 Cb6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Gb4 F4 Cb5 Bb4 Ab4 Gb4 Ab4 F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Ab4 - D4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{{1,Bb2 -}-}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{Bb5 D5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Ab4 Gb4 Bb4 Ab4 Ab4 Gb4 Ab4 F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Eb4 - Ab3 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{-{1,Bb2 -}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{Eb5 C6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,F4 Eb4 Db5 C5 Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 Gb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Gb3 - Eb4 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Eb3 - Ab2 -}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{Db6 -}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Gb4 F4 Gb4 Ab4 Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 Cb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Eb3 Db3 Eb3 F3 Gb3 F3 Gb3 Ab3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Ab2 Ab3 Gb3 F3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{2,Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 Eb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{Db4{1,- Bb4 Ab4 Gb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,Gb3 F3 Gb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 C4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Gb3 F3 Eb3 Ab3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{{1,F5 Eb5 F5 Gb5}{1,Ab5 -}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,F4 Gb4 F4 Eb4 Eb4 Db4 Ab4 Gb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) 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Bb5}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{Eb6 G5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Bb4 Ab4 Cb5 Bb4 Fb5 Eb5 Fb5 Db5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,&Gb4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Db6 Cb6 Eb6 Db6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Bb5}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{Ab5 F6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Db5 Cb5 Bb4 Ab4 Gb4 F4 Gb4 Ab4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{2,&Gb4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Bb5 Ab5 Gb5 F5 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Cb6}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{Gb6{1,D6 Eb6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,Ab4 Gb4 Cb5 Bb4 Gb4 F4 Gb4 F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{&Gb4 Bb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Cb6 Bb5 Ab5 Gb5 Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){2,{&Eb6{1,Bb5 Cb6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){2,{2,F4 Eb4 Ab4 Gb4 Eb4 Db4 Eb5 Db5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){2,{Eb4 Gb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){2,{2,Ab5 Gb5 F5 Eb5 Gb5 Fb5 Gb5 Fb5}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) 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{_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Eb6 1/2{3/2,Eb6}, 3/2{139/512,Eb6}{625/512,F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{G5{1/2,B4}C5{1/2,A5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{F4 1/2 F4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{F3 1/2 F3 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{D6 1/2{3/2,D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{Bb5{1/2,E4}F4{1/2,D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{F4 1/2 F3 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{F3 1/2 Bb2 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{C5 1/2 E5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,F5 - B4}C5{1/2,Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{F3 1/2 Bb3 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{A2 1/2 G2 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{F5{1/2,G5}A5{1/2,F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{A5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{C4 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{F2 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) 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_chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(1){3,{3,- Eb5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,F5}D6{1/2,Eb6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,Ab4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{-{1/2,G4}F4{1/2,Ab3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Eb5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{&Eb6 1/2 3/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{G4 1/2{3/2,F3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{-{1/2,Ab3}G3{1/2,Bb2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Eb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{1/2,C6}Bb5{1/2,Db5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3/2,Gb3}Db4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(4){3,{3,- Eb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,Fb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{1/2,Ab5}G5{1/2,Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,- Db4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,Db6 Eb5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{1/2,Ab4}G4{1/2,Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3/2,A4}Bb4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Eb5 1/2 C6 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{1/2,Bb4}Ab4{1/2,Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{-{1/2,Db4}C4{1/2,C3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{&Eb2 1/2 Ab3 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,Db6},{435/1024,Db6}{5/2,Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,- Ab4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{-{1/2,Eb4}Db4{1/2,Eb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,Bb3},{435/1024,Bb3}{5/2,C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{C6 1/2 3/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{&Ab4 1/2 F5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{C4{1/2,Bb4}Ab4{1/2,Db4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Ab3 1/2 3/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,- Db5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,Gb5},{435/1024,Gb5}{5/2,Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Eb4},{435/1024,Eb4}{5/2,F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4 F4 Eb4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{-{1/2,Bb3}Ab3{1/2,Db3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Db5 1/2 Bb5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{F5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{Db4 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Db3 1/2 Gb3 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,Cb6},{435/1024,Cb6}{5/2,Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6 Db6 Cb6}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,F#4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{-{1/2,Eb5}Db5{1/2,Gb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,Ab3},{435/1024,Ab3}{5/2,Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Bb5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{&F#4 1/2 D#5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{-{1/2,G#4}F#4{1/2,B3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Gb3 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{- 1/2{3/2,B4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,E5},{435/1024,E5}{5/2,F#5 E5 F#5 E5 F#5 E5 F#5 E5 F#5 E5 F#5 E5 F#5 E5 F#5 E5 F#5 E5 F#5 E5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,C#4},{435/1024,C#4}{5/2,Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{-{1/2,G#3}F#3{1/2,B2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&B4 1/2 G#5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{D#5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{B3{1/2,C#5}B4{1/2,E4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{B2 1/2 E4 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,A5},{435/1024,A5}{5/2,Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,E4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{D#4{1/2,C#5}B4{1/2,E4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,F#4},{435/1024,F#4}{5/2,Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4 Ab4 F#4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{G#5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{&E4 1/2 C#5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{D#4{1/2,F#4}E4{1/2,A3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{E4 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{- 1/2{3/2,A4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,D5},{435/1024,D5}{5/2,E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,B3},{435/1024,B3}{5/2,Db4 B3 Db4 B3 Db4 B3 Db4 B3 Db4 B3 Db4 B3 Db4 B3 Db4 B3 Db4 B3 Db4 B3}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{-{1/2,F#3}E3{1/2,A2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&A4 1/2 F#5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{C#5 1/2 D5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{A3{1/2,B4}A4{1/2,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{A2 1/2 D4 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,G5},{435/1024,G5}{5/2,A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5 A5 G5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{C#4{1/2,B4}A4{1/2,C#4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{- 1/2{3/2,A4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,E4},{435/1024,E4}{5/2,F#4 E4 F#4 E4 F#4 E4 F#4 E4 F#4 E4 F#4 E4 F#4 E4 F#4 E4 F#4 E4 F#4 E4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{F#5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{C4 1/2 F#4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{&A4 1/2 C4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{D4 1/2 A3 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{- 1/2{3/2,D5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,F#4},{435/1024,F#4}{5/2,G4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 F#4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,C4},{435/1024,C4}{5/2,D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,A3},{435/1024,A3}{5/2,B3 A3 B3 A3 B3 A3 B3 A3 B3 A3 B3 A3 B3 A3 B3 A3 B3 A3 B3 A3}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&D5 1/2 B5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{G4 1/2 D5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{B3 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{G3 1/2 F4 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,B5},{435/1024,B5}{5/2,C6 B5 C6 B5 C6 B5 C6 B5 C6 B5 C6 B5 C6 B5 C6 B5 C6 B5 C6 B5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,D5},{435/1024,D5}{5/2,E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5 E5 D5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,- G4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,F4},{435/1024,F4}{5/2,G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{C6 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{C5 1/2 E4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{&G4 1/2 Bb3 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{E4 1/2 G3 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{- 1/2{3/2,C5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,E4},{435/1024,E4}{5/2,F4 E4 F4 E4 F4 E4 F4 E4 F4 E4 F4 E4 F4 E4 F4 E4 F4 E4 F4 E4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Bb3},{435/1024,Bb3}{5/2,C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3 C4 Bb3}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,G3},{435/1024,G3}{5/2,Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3 Ab3 G3}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&C5 1/2 A5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{F4 1/2 F5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{A3 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{F3 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,A5},{435/1024,A5}{5/2,Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,F5},{435/1024,F5}{5/2,G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{- 1/2{3/2,F4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{- 1/2{3/2,C4&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Ab5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{F5 1/2 3/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{&F4 1/2 Ab3 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{&C4 1/2 F3 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{- 1/2{3/2,Ab4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,- F4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Ab3},{435/1024,Ab3}{5/2,Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3 Bb3 Ab3}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,F3},{435/1024,F3}{5/2,G3 F3 G3 F3 G3 F3 G3 F3 G3 F3 G3 F3 G3 F3 G3 F3 G3 F3 G3 F3}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Ab4 1/2 F5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{&F4 1/2 Ab4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{F3 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Db3 1/2 Db2 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,F5},{435/1024,F5}{5/2,G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,G4 Ab4 F5 G5 F5 B4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(3){3,{- 1/2{3/2,C4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,Db2},{435/1024,Db2}{5/2,Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2 Eb2 Db2}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,E5 E4 C5 F#4 G4 E5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{C5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&C4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{C2 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,B4 C5 G5 Ab5 G5 C5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&C4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,F5 Ab4 G4 F4 E4 F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{Db4 1/2 B4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,E4 B4 C5 Db5 C5 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,F4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Cb5},{435/1024,Cb5}{5/2,Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5 Db5 Cb5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{A4 1/2 3/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,&F4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,E3 F3 C4 G#3 A3 F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,&F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,B3 C4 A4 Bb4 A4 C4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{Gb4 1/2 E5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,Bb3 Bb4 C5 Db5 C5 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{-{2,- Eb4 D4 C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,F5},{435/1024,F5}{5/2,G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(3){3,{{3/2,A4 G4 F4}{3/2,Bb3&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,Bb3 C#4 D4 D4 A4 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,D4 A4 Bb4 F4 C#5 D5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Bb3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,D4 C#5 D5 A4 Bb4 D5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Bb4 E5 F5 Db5 D5 Bb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Bb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Eb5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,A5 Eb5 F5 Gb5 F5 Eb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{Cb4 1/2 A4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,F4 D5 Eb5 F5 G5 Ab5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,D5 C5 Bb4 Ab4 G4 F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Bb4},{435/1024,Bb4}{5/2,Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(4){3,{3,- Eb3&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,G5 A4 Bb4 A4 Bb4 G5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Eb4 F#4 G4 F#4 G4 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{- 1/2{3/2,G3&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb3&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3/2,F#5 G5 Bb5}{3/2,Db5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,A4 Bb4 Db5 A4 Bb4 G5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&G3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Db5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Db5 A5 Bb5 C5 Bb4 Db4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{&G3 1/2 A4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{E3 1/2 C4 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Db5 1/2 A5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Bb4 E5 F5 Gb4 F4 Bb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Bb4},{435/1024,Bb4}{5/2,C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,Db4},{435/1024,Db4}{5/2,Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,Bb5},{435/1024,Bb5}{5/2,C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,F4 E5 F5 Gb4 F4 C4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{Db4 1/2 A4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{F3 1/2 C4 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Db5 1/2 A5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,E4 F4 Db5 Gb4 F4 Bb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Bb4},{435/1024,Bb4}{5/2,C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,Db4},{435/1024,Db4}{5/2,Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,Bb5},{435/1024,Bb5}{5/2,C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Db5 A5 Bb5 Db5 C5 Eb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{Db4 1/2 A4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Gb3 1/2 C4 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Db5 1/2{3/2,Gb5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Db4 A4 Bb4 Ab5 Gb5 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Bb4 Bb4&},{139/512,Bb4}{625/512,Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4}1/128{139/512,Bb4}{625/512,Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,Db4},{435/1024,Db4}{5/2,Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4 Eb4 Db4}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Gb5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Cb5 Bb4 Db4 A4 Bb4 Gb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Bb4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(4){3,{3,Gb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Gb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Cb5 Bb4 Db4 Ab4 Gb4 Bb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Bb4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Gb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,G5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Eb5 Db5 Fb4 Eb4 Fb4 Db5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Bb4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Gb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,Fb6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Cb5 Bb4 Db4 A3 Bb3 G4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Gb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,Eb6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Bb4 Ab4 Cb4 Bb3 Cb4 Ab4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,C5&},{435/1024,C5}{5/2,Db5 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 C5 Db5 C5}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Gb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{G5 1/2 Ab5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,F4 C5 Db5 Gb5 F5 Db5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&C5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Gb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{F6 1/2{3/2,Gb6&}, 3/2{139/512,Gb6}{625/512,Ab6 Gb6 Ab6 Gb6 Ab6 Gb6 Ab6 Gb6 Ab6 Gb6}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Gb5 F5 Ab4 Ab5 Gb5 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,Cb5 Bb4&}, 3/2{139/512,Bb4}{625/512,Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Gb2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Gb6&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Eb5 Db5 Gb4 A4 Bb4 Db5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(4){3,{Gb3 1/2{3/2,F2&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&Gb6 F6}, 139/512{625/512,G6 Gb6 G6 Gb6 G6 Gb6 G6 Gb6 G6 Gb6}1/128{139/512,F6}{625/512,Gb6 F6 Gb6 F6 Gb6 F6 Gb6 F6 Gb6 F6}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,B4 C5 A5 Bb5 A5 C5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{A4 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&F2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,Eb6&},{435/1024,Eb6}{5/2,F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Db5 C5 Eb4 D4 Eb4 C5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(3){3,{3,- Gb3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&F2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&Eb6 Db6}, 139/512{625/512,F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6 F6 Eb6}1/128{139/512,Db6}{625/512,Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6 Eb6 Db6}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,D4 Eb4 C5 A4 Bb4 Bb5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Gb3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,Gb2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,C6&},{435/1024,C6}{5/2,Db6 C6 Db6 C6 Db6 C6 Db6 C6 Db6 C6 Db6 C6 Db6 C6 Db6 C6 Db6 C6 Db6 C6}1/1024 3/256 1/16}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,B4 C5 A5}{3/2,C4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Gb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{1/8,F3}{23/8,E3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&C6&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,&C4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,A3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,A2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&C6&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,&C4}{3/2,B3 C4 C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/8,Gb4}{23/8,F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,Ab2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&C6 Bb5}, 3/2{139/512,Bb5}{625/512,C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{2,- C4 Db4 Db5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,Bb3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,Bb2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,Bb4 Bb5&},{139/512,Bb4}{625/512,C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4 C5 Bb4}1/128{139/512,Bb5}{625/512,C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5 C6 Bb5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{2,- C5 Db5 Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Bb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,Gb3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&Bb5 A5&}, 3/2{139/512,A5}{625/512,Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,Eb4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,C4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,C3&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&A5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,&Eb4}{3/2,D4 Eb4 Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,A4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&C3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&A5 Ab5}, 3/2{139/512,Ab5}{625/512,Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{2,- E4 F4 F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,D4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,D3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,Ab4 Ab5&},{139/512,Ab4}{625/512,Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 Ab4 Bb4 Ab4}1/128{139/512,Ab5}{625/512,Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5 Bb5 Ab5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{2,- D5 Eb5 F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&D4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{1/8,Cb4}{23/8,Bb3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&Ab5 Gb5&}, 3/2{139/512,Gb5}{625/512,Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,Gb4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,Eb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,Eb3&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Gb5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,&Gb4}{3/2,F4 Gb4 Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/8,Db5}{23/8,Cb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&Gb5 F5&}, 3/2{139/512,F5}{625/512,Gb5 F5 Gb5 F5 Gb5 F5 Gb5 F5 Gb5 F5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{2,- G3 Ab3 Ab4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,F4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,F3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&F5 F6&}, 3/2{139/512,F6}{625/512,Gb6 F6 Gb6 F6 Gb6 F6 Gb6 F6 Gb6 F6}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{2,- A4 Bb4 Ab5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) 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Eb5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,Bb4&}, 3/2{139/512,Bb4}{625/512,Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4 Cb5 Bb4}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{Bb3 1/2{3/2,Gb4&}, 3/2{139/512,Gb4}{625/512,Ab4 Gb4 Ab4 Gb4 Ab4 Gb4 Ab4 Gb4 Ab4 Gb4}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Gb2 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3,&Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3,&Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,&Gb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{F5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{Cb5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{Ab4 1/2{3/2,Cb4&}, 3/2{139/512,Cb4}{625/512,Db4 Cb4 Db4 Cb4 Db4 Cb4 Db4 Cb4 Db4 Cb4}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{- 1/2{3/2,Ab2&}, 3/2{139/512,Ab2}{625/512,Bb2 Ab2 Bb2 Ab2 Bb2 Ab2 Bb2 Ab2 Bb2 Ab2}1/128}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3,&Cb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) 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_chan(2){3,{Gb4 1/2 F4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{Eb3,Bb3}1/2{D3,Bb3}1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Bb2 1/2 Bb2 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{Eb4 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{Eb3,Bb3}{1/2,Eb3}G4{1/2,G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Bb2 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{1/2,G3}Bb4{1/2,Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(54) _chan(3){3,{G4 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(1){3,{-{2,- D5 Eb5 Eb6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{Bb4 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Eb6&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,&Eb6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,-- Eb4}G5{1/2,G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,D6}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{G5{1/2,F5}F5{1/2,Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{1/2,E5}F5&{3/2,&F5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{D5{1/2,Db5}C5{1/2,Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{-{2,- A3 Bb3 Ab4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{F4{1/2,E4}Eb4{1/2,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Ab4&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{-{1/2,Db4}C6{1/2,Cb6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{F5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&Ab4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Bb5{1/2,Ab5}Ab5{1/2,G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{1/2,Bb3}Bb4{1/2,Bb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,G4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{G5{1/2,F5}F5{1/2,Eb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{Bb4{1/2,Ab4}Ab4{1/2,G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,A3}Bb3&{3/2,&Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) _chan(4){3,{-{2,- D3 Eb3 Eb4&}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Eb5{1/2,Ab4}Ab4{1/2,G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{G4{1/2,F4}F4{1/2,Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb4&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{G4 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{Bb3{1/2,G3}C5{1/2,C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{-{1/2,Eb3}G4{1/2,G4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb4}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{-{1/2,Bb4}Ab5{1/2,G5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{Bb4 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{G4{1/2,F4}F4{1/2,Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,D4}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Ab5 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{-{2,- A4 Bb4 Ab5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(112) 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_chan(2){3,{3,G4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,&G3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,C5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Gb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,Gb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Eb2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{3,A5&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,F4 Eb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{3,F3 C4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3,F2&},{435/1024,F2}{5/2,G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2}1/1024 3/256 1/16}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3/2,&A5}Bb5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,C5}Bb4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3/2,Eb4}D4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{&F2{1/2,E2 F2}Bb2 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{- 1/2{3/2,F5&}, 3/2{139/512,F5}{625/512,G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,C4&}, 3/2{139/512,C4}{625/512,D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{- 1/2{3/2,A3&}, 3/2{139/512,A3}{625/512,Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&F5{1/2,E5 F5}D5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{&C4{1/2,Bb3 C4}D4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{&A3{1/2,G3 A3}Bb3 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{- 1/2{3/2,A5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,C5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{- 1/2{3/2,Eb4&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{- 1/2{3/2,F2&}, 3/2{139/512,F2}{625/512,G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2 G2 F2}1/128}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{{3/2,&A5}Bb5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{3/2,&C5}Bb4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{3/2,&Eb4}D4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{&F2{1/2,E2 F2}Bb2 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{- 1/2{3/2,F5&}, 3/2{139/512,F5}{625/512,G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5 G5 F5}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{- 1/2{3/2,C4&}, 3/2{139/512,C4}{625/512,D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{- 1/2{3/2,A3&}, 3/2{139/512,A3}{625/512,Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3}1/128}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&F5{1/2,E5 F5}D5 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{&C4{1/2,Bb3 C4}D4 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{&A3{1/2,G3 A3}Bb3 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{- 1/2{3/2,A2&}, 3/2{139/512,A2}{625/512,Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2}1/128}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{&A2{1/2,G2 A2}Bb2 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{F4{1/2,E4 F4}D4 1/2,{115/512,F4}{3/4,G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{A3{1/2,G3 A3}Bb3 1/2,{115/512,A3}{3/4,Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{C4{1/2,Bb3 C4}F3 1/2,{115/512,C4}{3/4,D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(52) _chan(4){3,{A2{1/2,G2 A2}Bb2 1/2,{115/512,A2}{3/4,Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2}1/512 3/128 --}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{F4{1/2,E4 F4}D4 1/2,{115/512,F4}{3/4,G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(52) _chan(2){3,{A3{1/2,G3 A3}Bb3 1/2,{115/512,A3}{3/4,Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(54) _chan(3){3,{C4{1/2,Bb3 C4}F3 1/2,{115/512,C4}{3/4,D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{A2{1/2,G2 A2}Bb2 1/2,{115/512,A2}{3/4,Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2}1/512 3/128 --}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{F4{1/2,E4 F4}D4 1/2,{115/512,F4}{3/4,G4 F4 G4 F4 G4 F4}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{A3{1/2,G3 A3}Bb3 1/2,{115/512,A3}{3/4,Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{C4{1/2,Bb3 C4}F3 1/2,{115/512,C4}{3/4,D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4) 3} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{C4{1/2,Bb3 C4}Bb3 1/2,{115/512,C4}{3/4,D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(40) _chan(2) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3) 3,_tempo(34/15) _vel(38) _chan(4){3,{A2{1/2,G2 A2}Bb2 1/2,{115/512,A2}{3/4,Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2 Bb2 A2}1/512 3/128 --}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{-{1/2,D5}F6{1/2,F6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{A3{1/2,G3 A3}{3/2,Ab3 Bb3 Bb3},{115/512,A3}{3/4,Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3 Bb3 A3}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{C4{1/2,Bb3 C4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,Ab3},{115/512,C4}{3/4,D4 C4 D4 C4 D4 C4}1/512 3/128 --}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,- Bb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&F6{1/2,D5}F6{1/2,F6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Bb3&}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,Ab3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Bb2&}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&F6{1/2,D5}Ab6{1/2,Ab6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,&Bb3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,&Bb2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Ab6{1/2,G6&}&G6{1/2,F6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Cb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,B2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&F6{1/2,Eb6&}&Eb6{1/2,D6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Ab4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,B3}{1/2,F3,B3}{1/2,F3,B3}{1/2,F3,B3}{1/2,F3,B3}{1/2,F3,B3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,Ab3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Eb6{1/2,Eb5}Eb6{1/2,Eb6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,G4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,Eb3,C4}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,G3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Eb6{1/2,Eb5}G6{1/2,G6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,B3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,B2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&G6{1/2,F6&}&F6{1/2,Eb6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,C4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,C4}{1/2,Eb3,C4}{1/2,Eb3,C4}{1/2,Eb3,C4}{1/2,Eb3,C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,C3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Eb6{1/2,D6&}&D6{1/2,C6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,A4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,A3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Eb6{1/2,D6&}&D6{1/2,Eb6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,Bb3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Eb6{1/2,D6&}&D6{1/2,C6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,F#4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,A3,D4}{1/2,A3,D4}{1/2,A3,D4}{1/2,A3,D4}{1/2,A3,D4}{1/2,A3,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,F#3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&C6{1/2,Bb5&}&Bb5{1/2,C6&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,G4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,Bb3,D4}{1/2,Bb3,D4}{1/2,Bb3,D4}{1/2,Bb3,D4}{1/2,Bb3,D4}{1/2,Bb3,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,G3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&C6{1/2,Bb5&}&Bb5{1/2,Ab5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,D4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,Bb3,F4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,D3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Ab5{1/2,G5&}&G5{1/2,Ab5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Eb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,Bb3,G4}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,Eb3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&Ab5{1/2,G5&}&G5{1/2,F5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,B3}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,D3,G3}{1/2,G3,D4}{1/2,G3,D4}{1/2,G3,D4}{1/2,G3,D4}{1/2,G3,D4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,B2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&F5{1/2,Eb5}G5{1/2,F5&}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,C4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,G3,Eb4}{1/2,G3,Eb4}{1/2,G3,Eb4}{1/2,G3,Eb4}{1/2,G3,Eb4}{1/2,G3,Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,C3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{&F5{1/2,Eb5}D5{1/2,C5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,F4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,A3,Eb4}{1/2,A3,Eb4}{1/2,A3,Eb4}{1/2,A3,Eb4}{1/2,A3,Eb4}{1/2,A3,Eb4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{3,F3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Bb4{1/2,F4}D5{1/2,D5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(2){3,{3,F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(98) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,Bb3,D4}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(94) _chan(4){3,{F3{1/2,D2}F3{1/2,F3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{C5{1/2,C5}A5{1/2,A5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,C5 F4 F4 F4 F4 C5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,A3}{1/2,F3,A3}{1/2,F3,A3}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{F3{1/2,Eb2}F3{1/2,F3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{Bb5{1/2,F5}D6{1/2,D6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,Bb4 F4 F4 F4 F4 Bb4}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{F3{1/2,D2}F3{1/2,F3}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{C6{1/2,A4}F6{1/2,F6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{3,C5 F4 F4 F4 F4 C5}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,A3}{1/2,F3,A3}{1/2,F3,A3}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{F3{1/2,F3}F2{1/2,F2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(1){3,{F6 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{F4,D5}{1/2,D5}Bb5{1/2,Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(4){3,{Bb2 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{-{1/2,A4}F6{1/2,F6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{1/2,F4,C5}{1/2,F4,C5}{1/2,F4,C5}{1/2,F4,A4}{1/2,F4,A4}{1/2,F4,A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{{3/2,-- F4}F2{1/2,F2}}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{F6 1/2 - 1/2}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{F4,D5}{1/2,D5}Bb5{1/2,Bb5}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Bb3}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{Bb2 1/2 - 1/2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(1){3,{-{1/2,A4}F6{1/2,F6}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(107) _chan(2){3,{{1/2,F4,C5}{1/2,F4,C5}{1/2,F4,C5}{1/2,F4,A4}{1/2,F4,A4}{1/2,F4,A4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(3){3,{{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}{1/2,F3,C4}}},_tempo(34/15) _vel(93) _chan(4){3,{-{1/2,F4}F2{1/2,F2}}}} {_tempo(109/60) _vel(93) _chan(1){4,{{D4,D5,Bb5}1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(109/60) _vel(107) _chan(2){4,{{Bb3,F4,Bb4}1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(109/60) _vel(93) _chan(3){4,{{F3,Bb3}1/2 -- 1/2}},_tempo(109/60) _vel(93) _chan(4){4,{Bb2 1/2 -- 1/2}}}

Ahead with grammars

Before look­ing in greater detail at mate­r­i­al import­ed from MusicXML files, let us address the issue of using frag­ments of this mate­r­i­al to cre­ate music in the Bol Processor task environment.

After importing/converting a MusicXML score, click­ing EXPLODE will break it to sep­a­rate items, one per mea­sure as per the MusicXML structure:

The EXPLODE but­ton on the Data page.

The data has been chun­ked to units item 1, item 2 etc. Note that it is pos­si­ble to play each mea­sure sep­a­rate­ly and dis­play its sound-objects or its piano roll.

The CREATE GRAMMAR but­ton will now launch the con­ver­sion of this data to a grammar: 

The CREATE GRAMMAR button

The new gram­mar is dis­played in a pop­up win­dow and can be copied to a Grammar page:

The new gram­mar has been created

This is a basic trans­for­ma­tion. Playing this gram­mar would sim­ply recon­struct the musi­cal work as it was import­ed. However, since each mea­sure is now labeled as a vari­able M001, M002 etc., these vari­ables can be used as the “build­ing bricks” of a new com­po­si­tion­al work.

Performance controls

MusicXML files con­tain descrip­tive infor­ma­tion for use by mechan­i­cal play­back machines but not dis­played on the graph­ic score. For instance, wher­ev­er the score dis­plays “Allegretto” the file con­tains a quan­ti­ta­tive instruc­tion such as “tem­po = 132”.

Trills in mea­sure 10 of Beethoven’s Fugue in B flat major
Trills inter­pret­ed by the Bol Processor

Another notice­able case is the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of trills (see pic­ture above). These appear explic­it­ly as sequences of fast notes in the MusicXML file. Consequently, they are accu­rate­ly ren­dered by the inter­preter of the MusicXML file.

In the same mea­sure #10, a fer­ma­ta appears on top of the crotch­et rest. Its dura­tion is not spec­i­fied because it is up to the dis­cre­tion of the per­former or con­duc­tor, but the Bol Processor fol­lows a com­mon prac­tice of mak­ing it 2 times the dura­tion of the tagged rest.

MusicXML files con­tain indi­ca­tions of sound dynam­ics which the Bol Processor may inter­pret either as _volume(x) or _vel(x) com­mands. The lat­ter (veloc­i­ty) is prop­er to instru­ments such as piano, harp­si­chord etc.

Graphic indi­ca­tions of the dynam­ics (signs ffff to pppp) are used in case a numer­ic val­ue is miss­ing. This val­ue is esti­mat­ed as per the MakeMusic Finale dynam­ics convention.

Options for import­ing a MusicXML file

Some pre­scrip­tive infor­ma­tion appear­ing on the graph­ic score is not inter­pret­ed. The first rea­son is that it would be dif­fi­cult to trans­late to Bol Processor per­for­mance con­trols — for instance stepwise/continuous vol­ume con­trol, accel­er­a­tion etc. The sec­ond rea­son is that the aim of this exer­cise is not to pro­duce the “best inter­pre­ta­tion” of a musi­cal score. Score edit­ing pro­grams per­form bet­ter! Our sole inten­tion is to cap­ture musi­cal frag­ments and rework them with gram­mars or scripts.

It would be dif­fi­cult to reuse a musi­cal frag­ment packed with strings of per­for­mance con­trols rel­e­vant to its par­tic­u­lar con­text in the musi­cal work. To this effect, the user is offered options to ignore vol­ume con­trols, tem­po and chan­nel assign­ments in every import­ed MusicXML score. These can lat­er be delet­ed or remapped in sin­gle clicks (see below).

Remapping channels and instruments

MusicXML dig­i­tal scores con­tain MIDI chan­nel spec­i­fi­ca­tions to sep­a­rate parts/instruments. These are vis­i­ble in the Bol Processor score after the con­ver­sion. In gen­er­al, they need to be remapped for the sound out­put device. MIDI chan­nels would be mod­i­fied to match instru­ments avail­able on a MIDI syn­the­siz­er, and _ins() instruc­tions may be need­ed to call instru­ments avail­able in the Csound orchestra.

This remap­ping car eas­i­ly be oper­at­ed at the bot­tom of Data or Grammar pages:

The note con­ven­tion when import­ing MusicXML scores is English (“C”, “D”, “E”…) by default. This form allows its con­ver­sion in a sin­gle click to Italian/Spanish/French (“do”, “re”, “mi”…) or Indian (“sa”, “re”, “ga”…) conventions.

Clicking the MANAGE _chan() AND _ins() but­ton dis­plays a form list­ing all occur­rences of MIDI chan­nels and Csound instru­ments. Here, for instance, we are plan­ning to keep MIDI chan­nels and insert _ins() com­mands to call Csound instru­ments described in a “-cs” Csound resource file: 

Error corrections

MuseScore’s cor­rec­tion of the defec­tive sequence (top score)

MuseScore sig­naled an error in mea­sure 142 of the MusicXML score for Beethoven’s Fugue: the total tim­ing of notes in part 1 (the upper­most score) is 3754 units which amounts to 3.66 beats (instead of 4) on a divi­sion of 1024 units per quar­ter note. MuseScore fixed this mis­take by stretch­ing this sequence to 4 beats with the mark­ing of a defec­tive silence at the end.

The Bol Processor behaves dif­fer­ent­ly. Its notion of “mea­sure” as a poly­met­ric struc­ture is not based on count­ing beats. It takes the struc­ture’s top line as ref­er­ence for tim­ing so that “mea­sures” may be of vari­able dura­tions. Its inter­pre­ta­tion of this mea­sure is the fol­low­ing: ratio 3755/1024 denotes exact­ly the (pre­sum­ably defec­tive) dura­tion of this mea­sure accord­ing to the MusicXML score:

{{3755/1024,
{{341/1024,G5}{171/512,D5}{341/512,D6 D6}{171/512,D5}{341/512,Bb5 Bb5}{171/512,A5}{341/1024,G5}{57/256,G5}{227/1024,F5}{57/256,A5}}},
{4,{{341/1024,Bb4}{171/512,Bb3}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,Bb3}{341/512,D5 D5}{171/512,C5}{341/512,Bb4 Bb4}{171/512,A4}{341/1024,C5}}},
{4,{{2,-}-{341/1024,-}{171/512,Eb3}{341/1024,F4}}},
{4,{{4,D4 F#3 F#3 G3 G3 E4 Eb4 Eb4}}}}

Measure # 142 inter­pret­ed by the Bol Processor

The graph­ic ren­der­ing of this mea­sure indi­cates that the four sequences are per­fect­ly synchronized.

To fix the error it is suf­fi­cient to replace “3755/1024” with “4”.

Error noti­fi­ca­tion while con­vert­ing Beethoven’s Fugue

As per this writ­ing, the Bol Processor has been able to import most MusicXML scores and play them cor­rect­ly. Errors may still occur with very com­pli­cat­ed files, notably due to incon­sis­ten­cies (or round­ing errors) in the MusicXML code. For instance, the num­ber­ing of mea­sures looks con­fus­ing in Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody (due to implic­it mea­sures) and a few val­ues of <back­ward> are incor­rect. These details are detect­ed and errors fixed while con­vert­ing the file.

Tempo interpretation: prescriptive versus descriptive

MusicXML scores con­tain tem­po state­ments of two kinds: (1) metronome pre­scrip­tive indi­ca­tions avail­able on con­ven­tion­al print­ed scores and (2) their descrip­tive mod­i­fi­ca­tions for a prop­er rend­ing of the mechan­i­cal interpretation. 

In the pre­scrip­tive set­ting, tem­po con­trols inside mea­sures are dis­card­ed. This leads to a “robot­ic” ren­der­ing: acceleration/deceleration miss the ardor and del­i­ca­cy of human inter­pre­ta­tions. However, since the tran­scrip­tion reflects the plain print­ed score, its frag­ments are more eli­gi­ble for a reuse.

Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody import­ed by the Bol Processor and played on PianoTeq
Source: ManWithNoName in the MuseScore com­mu­ni­ty

In a detailed inter­pre­ta­tion, all tem­po state­ments are con­vert­ed, includ­ing the “non-printing” ones which we call descrip­tive. The glob­al ren­der­ing is more pleas­ant if these indi­ca­tions make sense musi­cal­ly. For instance, this is Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody with all tem­po controls:

Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody with all “descrip­tive” tem­po con­trols.
Source: ManWithNoName in the MuseScore community

An option is offered on the Bol Processor to restrict tem­po con­trols to the ones of the print­ed score. Assuming that it is exact­ly the ver­sion pub­lished by the com­pos­er (which is indeed arguable) we may take the fol­low­ing inter­pre­ta­tion as reflect­ing the music that Liszt had in mind irre­spec­tive of the per­former’s inter­pre­ta­tion.

Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody inter­pret­ed by Bol Processor with exclu­sive­ly tem­po state­ments of the print­ed score
Source: ManWithNoName in the MuseScore community

Several ver­sions of the same musi­cal work may be found in shared repos­i­to­ries. Below is an inter­pre­ta­tion of the same 14th Hungarian Rhapsody based on the MusicXML score cus­tomized by OguzSirin:

Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody import­ed by the Bol Processor and played on PianoTeq with all “descrip­tive” tem­po con­trols.
Source: OguzSirin in the MuseScore community
Excerpts of piano roll for Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody tran­scribed by OguzSirin

The entire work is con­tained in a sin­gle poly­met­ric expres­sion (see code below) which needs to be “expand­ed” to fill a “phase dia­gram” of sound-objects. Its com­plete expan­sion would cre­ate no less than 7 x 1023 sym­bols… out­num­ber­ing the esti­mat­ed 400 bil­lion (4 x 1011) stars in the Milky Way! Fortunately, poly­met­ric rep­re­sen­ta­tions can be com­pressed in a com­pre­hen­sive for­mat (see code below) and processed to cre­ate the expect­ed sequence of sound objects. The com­pres­sion rate for this item is greater than 5 x 1022, yield­ing a Bol Processor score with­out any loss of data.

Despite restric­tions (and poten­tial errors), the detailed vir­tu­os­i­ty engraved in Liszt’s score comes in sup­port to Alfred Brendel’s idea of inter­pret­ing a musi­cal work:

If I belong to a tra­di­tion, it is a tra­di­tion that makes the mas­ter­piece tell the per­former what to do, and not the per­former telling the piece what it should be like, or the com­pos­er what he ought to have composed.

Focus on tempo and fermata

This sec­tion is for read­ers con­ver­sant with com­mon Western music nota­tion. We illus­trate the inter­pre­ta­tion of (non-printed) metronome anno­ta­tions inside mea­sures and fer­ma­ta (unmea­sured pro­lon­ga­tions) in a typ­i­cal exam­ple: mea­sure #6 of Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody anno­tat­ed by ManWithNoName of the MusicScore com­mu­ni­ty. The source mate­r­i­al is the MusicXML code of this mea­sure on which tem­po anno­ta­tions are high­light­ed in red and fer­ma­ta in green color.

This mea­sure is dis­played as fol­lows on the print­ed score. Invisible tem­po anno­ta­tions have been added in red at the exact loca­tions set by the MusicXML score. Three fer­ma­ta are print­ed above/below the note or silence they are applied to.

Measure 6
Measure 6 of Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody

The sym­bol­ic dura­tion of this mea­sure is 6 beats. Due to round­ing errors it is dis­played by the Bol Processor as 1441/240 = 6.004 beats. This tiny mis­match is caused by a round­ing of the dura­tions of 14 notes Ab2 C3 F3 Ab3 C4 F4 Ab4 C5 F5 Ab5 C6 F6 Ab6 C7, a sequence which should last exact­ly 3/8 beats. Each beat is divid­ed in 480 parts — the divi­sion spec­i­fi­ca­tion at the begin­ning of the score. Therefore the sequence should last 480 x 3/8 = 180 units and each note should last 180/14 = 12.85 units. Since dura­tions are rep­re­sent­ed as inte­gers in a MusicXML score, this val­ue has been round­ed to 13. This explains the small dif­fer­ence vis­i­ble in the Bol Processor score, yet unno­tice­able to human ears. 

The fol­low­ing is the com­plete Bol Processor tran­scrip­tion of this mea­sure. First, the graph­ic rep­re­sen­ta­tion of sound-objects labeled as sim­ple notes:

Measure 6 of Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody inter­pret­ed as sound-objects by the Bol Processor

Note that all sound-objects in the first 2.5 sec­onds are dupli­cat­ed. The MusicXML score is redun­dant, for­tu­nate­ly with no incon­sis­ten­cy between dupli­cate occur­rences, which explains why they are not vis­i­ble on the print­ed score.

The same poly­met­ric expres­sion is avail­able in piano roll format:

Measure 6 of Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody dis­played as piano roll by the Bol Processor

We will fur­ther explain how this tran­scrip­tion has been obtained.

On the Data win­dow the 6th mea­sure is rep­re­sent­ed as a poly­met­ric struc­ture: {dura­tion, field 1, field2, field 3, field4}. After import­ing the MusicXML score, click but­ton EXPLODE on the right side to show mea­sures as sep­a­rate items. Since mea­sure num­ber­ing starts with 0 on this score, mea­sure #6 is ren­dered as item #7.

To facil­i­tate read­ing, each field is on a sep­a­rate line:

_tempo(13/20) _vel(82) _chan(1) {

1441/240,

_tempo(80/39) {Ab2,C3} {2,F3} 1/8 _tempo(16/39) {13/480,Ab2} _tempo(16/39) {169/480,C3 F3 Ab3 C4 F4 Ab4 C5 F5 Ab5 C6 F6 Ab6 C7} _tempo(4/3) {1/2,F7} _tempo(4/3) --,

_tempo(80/39) {Ab2,C3} _tempo(80/39) {2,F3} 1/8 _tempo(16/39) 3/8 _tempo(4/3) {1/2,Ab6} 481/240,

_tempo(80/39) {F1,C2} _tempo(80/39) {2,F2} {1/8,F1} _tempo(16/39) {13/480,C2} _tempo(16/39) {13/480,F2}{13/40,Ab2 C3 F3 Ab3 C4 F4 Ab4 C5 F5 Ab5 C6 F6} _tempo(4/3) 667/480 {53/480,G1,G2} {1/2,Ab1,Ab2}{1/2,B1,B2},

_tempo(80/39) {F1,C2}{2,F2} 1/8 _tempo(16/39) 91/240 _tempo(4/3) 599/240 1/240

}

Integers and inte­ger ratios rep­re­sent rests. For instance, 667/480 in the third field is a rest of 667/480 = 1.38958 beat dura­tion. Dates and dura­tions are han­dled by the Bol Processor as inte­ger ratios, there­by allow­ing per­fect time accu­ra­cy. Ratio 1/2 in the first field may be equiv­a­lent­ly inter­pret­ed as a 1/2 beat rest or the sym­bol­ic dura­tion of expres­sion {1/2,F7}.

Redundancy of the MusicXML score is vis­i­ble as expres­sions such as {Ab2,C3}{2,F3} and {F1,C2}{2,F2} appear in two fields (at the same date and speed).

Tempo instruc­tions in red col­or reflect anno­ta­tions of the MusicXML score. Each field begins at metronome 80 bpm (beats per minute). Instruction _tempo(13/20) in front of the poly­met­ric struc­ture sets the metronome to 60 x 13/20 = 39 bpm. In the begin­ning of each field, it is mul­ti­plied by 80/39, there­fore yield­ing 60 x 13/20 x 80/39 = 80 bpm as expect­ed. The fol­low­ing state­ments pro­duce 16 bpm and 52 bpm at their respec­tive locations.

This trans­la­tion of the MusicXML score as a poly­met­ric struc­ture is not easy to accom­plish with respect to metronome anno­ta­tions. The main prob­lem is that these anno­ta­tions appear only on the upper line of the score (i.e. the first field of the struc­ture) and should be insert­ed at the same dates in oth­er fields. For instance, _tempo(4/3) is locat­ed at the 4.5th beat, before {1/2,F7} in the first field, con­se­quent­ly before {1/2,Ab6} in the sec­ond field. This is easy to compute.

Rest 481/240 (cir­ca 2 beats) appear­ing in green on the Bol Processor score has been append­ed after the sec­ond field to cal­i­brate its dura­tion to the dura­tion of the mea­sure. This cal­i­bra­tion is not manda­to­ry on print­ed scores nor in MusicXML files: where no note is shown, musi­cians under­stand there is an implic­it rest which they spon­ta­neous­ly insert to antic­i­pate the syn­chro­niza­tion of forth­com­ing notes in the next mea­sure. Yet a machine should be instruct­ed to do so.

However, _tempo(16/39) locat­ed before the Ab2 C3 F3… sequence in the first field falls inside a rest of 1/2 beat dura­tion in the sec­ond field. In fact, this rest is cod­ed as a for­ward instruc­tion because it does not appear on the print­ed score. To syn­chro­nize tem­po changes, the _tempo(16/39) state­ment must be locat­ed at the first quar­ter of this rest. The result is:

1/8 _tempo(16/39) 3/8

Similarly, a for­ward of 2.5 beats in the fourth field needs to be bro­ken to insert the _tempo(8/27) and _tempo(26/27) state­ments, which would yield:

1/8 _tempo(16/39) 91/240 _tempo(4/3) 480/240

However, the cal­i­bra­tion of the dura­tion of this fourth field demands an addi­tion­al rest of 1/2 beat, sug­gest­ing that 480/240 be replaced with 600/240. An addi­tion­al gap of 1/240 is required to com­pen­sate round­ing errors. This yields:

1/8 _tempo(16/39) 91/240 _tempo(4/3) 599/240 1/240

Another issue of mea­sure #6 in Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody is the occur­rence of three fer­ma­ta (see print­ed score). In the same way as metronome mark­ings, fer­ma­ta are not repeat­ed on each line of the score as they apply to all parts (voic­es) simul­ta­ne­ous­ly. Therefore dura­tions must be adjust­ed accord­ing­ly to main­tain the syn­chro­niza­tion in a machine interpretation.

The first fer­ma­ta (col­ored in green on the MusicXML score) is on note “F3″ of the first field. Therefore its dura­tion is 2 beats instead of 1. This exten­sion is prop­a­gat­ed to sub­se­quent fields at the same date, name­ly “F3″, “F2″, “F2″.

The sec­ond fer­ma­ta is placed on an eight (qua­ver) rest appear­ing on the print­ed score, whose dura­tion is extend­ed by 1/2 beat. This ends up extend­ing by 1/2 beat rests occur­ring at the same date in sub­se­quent fields.

To facil­i­tate sim­i­lar analy­ses, an option is offered to trace trans­for­ma­tions when importing/converting MusicXML scores. The part rel­e­vant to mea­sure #6 (item #7) reads as follows:

• Measure #6 part [P1] starts with cur­rent peri­od = 0.75s, cur­rent tem­po = 4/3, default tem­po = 4/3 (metronome = 80)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #1 metronome set to 80 at date 0 beat(s)
f+ Measure #6 part P1 field #1 note ‘F3’ at date 1 increased by 1 beat(s) as per fer­ma­ta #1
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #1 metronome set to 16 at date 3 beat(s)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #1 metronome set to 16 at date 25/8 beat(s)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #1 metronome set to 52 at date 1513/480 beat(s)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #1 metronome set to 52 at date 841/240 beat(s)
f+ Measure #6 part P1 field #1 note ‘-’ at date 961/240 increased by 1/2 beat(s) as per fer­ma­ta #2
+ mea­sure #6 field #1 : phys­i­cal time = 7.98s
• Rounding part P1 mea­sure 6 field #2, neglect­ing ‘back­up’ rest = 1/240
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #2 metronome set to 80 at date 0 beat(s)
f+ Measure #6 part P1 field #2 note ‘F3’ at date 1 increased by 1 beat(s) to insert fer­ma­ta #1
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #2 metronome set to 80 at date 1 beat(s)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #2 metronome set to 16 dur­ing rest start­ing date 3 beat(s)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #2 metronome set to 52 at date 7/2 beat(s)
+ mea­sure #6 field #2 : phys­i­cal time = 5.08s
Error in mea­sure 6 part P1 field #3, ‘back­up’ rest = -1/2 beat(s) (fixed)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #3 metronome set to 80 at date 0 beat(s)
f+ Measure #6 part P1 field #3 note ‘F2’ at date 1 increased by 1 beat(s) to insert fer­ma­ta #1
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #3 metronome set to 80 at date 1 beat(s)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #3 metronome set to 16 at date 25/8 beat(s)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #3 metronome set to 16 at date 1513/480 beat(s)
f+ Measure #6 part P1 field #3 silence at date 961/240 increased by 1/2 to insert fer­ma­ta #2
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #3 metronome set to 52 dur­ing rest start­ing date 841/240 beat(s)
+ mea­sure #6 field #3 : phys­i­cal time = 9.28s
• Rounding part P1 mea­sure 6 field #4, neglect­ing ‘back­up’ rest = 1/240
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #4 metronome set to 80 at date 0 beat(s)
f+ Measure #6 part P1 field #4 note ‘F2’ at date 1 increased by 1 beat(s) to insert fer­ma­ta #1
f+ Measure #6 part P1 field #4 silence at date 961/240 increased by 1/2 to insert fer­ma­ta #2
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #4 metronome set to 16 dur­ing rest start­ing date 3 beat(s)
mm Measure #6 part P1 field #4 metronome set to 52 dur­ing rest start­ing date 3 beat(s)
+rest Measure #6 part P1 field #2 added rest = 481/240 beat(s)
+rest Measure #6 part P1 field #4 added rest = 1/240 beat(s)
+ mea­sure #6 field #4 : phys­i­cal time = 7.77s
➡ Measure #6 part [P1] phys­i­cal time = 9.28s, aver­age metronome = 49, final metronome = 39

Changing tempo

There are sev­er­al meth­ods for chang­ing the tem­po of import­ed MusicXML scores. After the con­ver­sion it is obvi­ous­ly pos­si­ble to edit _tempo(x) instruc­tions indi­vid­u­al­ly. Clicking the EXPLODE but­ton makes it pos­si­ble to mod­i­fy, and check visually/auditively each mea­sure separately.

Inserting a _tempo(x) instruc­tion in front of the musi­cal work changes the aver­age metronome val­ue. The effect is iden­ti­cal to chang­ing the metronome in the set­tings file (which we did for Oscar Peterson’s work). For instance, the fol­low­ing Bol Processor score would per­form Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody at half speed:

// MusicXML file ‘Hungarian_Rhapsody_No._14.musicxml’ con­vert­ed
// Score part ‘P1’: instru­ment = Piano — MIDI chan­nel 1
-se.Hungarian_Rhapsody

_tempo(1/2) {_tempo(9/10) _vel(82) _chan(1){9/8, 1/8 _tempo(53/54) -,_tempo(10/9){1/8,C1,C2}_tempo(53/54){1/2,Db1,Db2}{1/2,E1,E2}}}{_tempo(4/3) _vel(82) _chan(1){33/8,{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}

Beginning of Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody at half speed

Despite Bol Processor’s sys­tem­at­ic treat­ment of sym­bol­ic time as inte­ger ratios, a floating-point argu­ment x is accept­able in a _tempo(x) instruc­tion. For instance, _tempo(1.68) will auto­mat­i­cal­ly be con­vert­ed to _tempo(168/100) and sim­pli­fied to _tempo(42/25).

A sophis­ti­cat­ed adjust­ment of tem­po is pos­si­ble at the time of import­ing the MusicXML score.

Current aver­age, min­i­mum and max­i­mum val­ues of metronome are dis­played. Boxes in yel­low col­or con­tain the replace­ment val­ues, e.g. set aver­age to 60 bpm, min­i­mum to 10 bpm and max­i­mum to 180 bpm.

All metronome val­ues are changed using a qua­drat­ic regres­sion of the map­ping of val­ues. A lin­ear regres­sion may be used in replace­ment of the poly­no­mi­al form in case it is not monot­o­nous. For this exam­ple (14th Hungarian Rhapsody) the new aver­age would be 63 bpm instead of the expect­ed 60 bpm. The mis­match depends on the sta­tis­ti­cal dis­tri­b­u­tion of values.

Changing volume or velocity

An option is giv­en at the time of con­vert­ing a MusicXML score to inter­pret sound dynam­ics as vol­ume or veloc­i­ty con­trols. The lat­ter may be prefer­able for sound syn­the­sis imi­tat­ing plucked or struck stringed instruments.

Regardless of the choice, vol­ume and veloc­i­ty con­trols can lat­er be adjust­ed for the entire musi­cal work. Click for instance Modify _vel() at the bot­tom of the Data page.

This will dis­play a form indi­cat­ing cur­rent aver­age, min­i­mum and max­i­mum val­ues of _vel(x) state­ments in the score. Enter the desired val­ues in yel­low box­es and click APPLY.

The map­ping uses a qua­drat­ic regres­sion (if monot­o­nous) as explained with respect to tem­po (see above). For the same rea­son, reached aver­ages are gen­er­al­ly not exact­ly the desired ones.

Arpeggios

Arpeggios are con­vert­ed to poly­met­ric struc­tures. The fol­low­ing is a chord {F1,C2,F3} of dura­tion 1/2 beat fol­lowed by its inter­pre­ta­tion as an arpeggio:

{1/2, F1, C2, F2} - {1/5, F1& C2& F2&} {3/10, &F1, &C2, &F2}

Chord with­out then with arpeggio
Piano roll of chord with­out then with arpeggio

The piano roll of this sequence makes it clear. The chord has been bro­ken into two parts. The dura­tion of the first part is deter­mined by a min­i­mum val­ue of the delay between each arpeg­gio note and the fol­low­ing one, here set to 1/20 beat. The total dura­tion is not allowed to exceed half of the dura­tion of the chord.

Notes are tied (sym­bol ‘&’) so that their dura­tions are merged, as expect­ed, between the arpeg­gio part and the pure chord part: for instance, “F1&” is tied to “&F1″ — read Tied notes for details.

File sizes

Let us com­pare the sizes of files able to deliv­er the same inter­pre­ta­tion of 14th Hungarian Rhapsody:

  • Sound file in AIFF 16-bit 48 Khz pro­duced by PianoTeq = 200 Mb
  • MusicXML file = 3.9 Mb
  • Graphic + audio score pro­duced by MuseScore = 141 Kb
  • Graphic score export­ed as PDF by MuseScore = 895 Kb
  • Csound score pro­duced by Bol Processor = 582 Kb
  • MIDI file pro­duced by Bol Processor = 75 Kb
  • Bol Processor data = 62 Kb

This com­par­i­son sup­ports the idea that Bol Processor data is arguably the most com­pact and alto­geth­er com­pre­hen­sive (text) for­mat for rep­re­sent­ing dig­i­tal music. Below is the full data of this musi­cal work:

// MusicXML file ‘Hungarian_Rhapsody_No._14.musicxml’ con­vert­ed
// Score part ‘P1’: instru­ment = Piano — MIDI chan­nel 1

-se.Hungarian_Rhapsody

{_tempo(9/10) _vel(72){9/8, 1/8 _tempo(53/54) -,_tempo(10/9){1/8,C1,C2}_tempo(53/54){1/2,Db1,Db2}{1/2,E1,E2}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){33/8,{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/5,F1& C2& F2&}{3/10,&F1,&C2,&F2}1/2{1/8,C1,C2}{1/2,Db1,Db2}{1/2,E1,E2}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){33/8,{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/5,F1& C2& F2&}{3/10,&F1,&C2,&F2}1/2{1/8,C1,C2}{1/2,Db1,Db2}{1/2,E1,E2}}} {_tempo(21/20) _vel(72){4,_tempo(80/63){3/2,G2,B2,E3}{1/2,B2,D#3,F#3}_tempo(52/63){1/2,B2,E3,G3}{3/2,C3,E3,A3},_tempo(80/63){1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/5,F1& C2& F2&}{3/10,&F1,&C2,&F2}_tempo(52/63) 1/3{1/6,C1,C2}{1/2,Db1,Db2}{1/2,E1,E2}}} {_tempo(21/20) _vel(72){4,_tempo(80/63){3/2,E3,G3,B3}{1/2,E3,A3,C4}_tempo(52/63){1/2,E3,G3,B3}{3/2,C3,E3,A3},_tempo(80/63){1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/5,F1& C2& F2&}{3/10,&F1,&C2,&F2}_tempo(52/63) 1/3{1/6,C1,C2}{1/2,Db1,Db2}{1/2,E1,E2}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{15/8,Bb2,Eb3,G3}{1/8,G3}{15/8,Bb2,E3,G3}{1/8,E3},{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}{1/8,F1,C2}{1/8,F2}1/6{1/12,G1}{1,Ab1 B1}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}1/6{1/12,C1,C2}{1/2,Db1,Db2}{1/2,E1,E2}}} {_tempo(13/20) _vel(72){1441/240,_tempo(80/39){Ab2,C3}{2,F3}1/8 _tempo(16/39){13/480,Ab2}_tempo(16/39){169/480,C3 F3 Ab3 C4 F4 Ab4 C5 F5 Ab5 C6 F6 Ab6 C7}_tempo(4/3){1/2,F7}_tempo(4/3) --,_tempo(80/39){Ab2,C3}_tempo(80/39){2,F3}1/8 _tempo(16/39) 3/8 _tempo(4/3){1/2,Ab6}481/240,_tempo(80/39){F1,C2}_tempo(80/39){2,F2}{1/8,F1}_tempo(16/39){13/480,C2}_tempo(16/39){13/480,F2}{13/40,Ab2 C3 F3 Ab3 C4 F4 Ab4 C5 F5 Ab5 C6 F6}_tempo(4/3) 667/480{53/480,G1,G2}{1/2,Ab1,Ab2}{1/2,B1,B2},_tempo(80/39){F1,C2}{2,F2}1/8 _tempo(16/39) 91/240 _tempo(4/3) 599/240 1/240}} {_tempo(21/20) _vel(72){4,_tempo(80/63){3/2,Eb3,G3,C4}{1/2,G3,D4}_tempo(52/63){1/2,G3,C4,Eb4}{3/2,Ab3,C4,F4},_tempo(80/63){1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/5,C2& G2& C3&}{3/10,&C2,&G2,&C3}_tempo(52/63) 1/3{1/6,G1,G2}{1/2,Ab1,Ab2}{1/2,B1,B2}}} {_tempo(21/20) _vel(72){4,_tempo(80/63){3/2,C4,Eb4,G4}{1/2,Ab3,F4,Ab4}_tempo(52/63){1/2,C4,Eb4,G4}{3/2,Ab3,C4,F4},_tempo(80/63){1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/5,C2& G2& C3&}{3/10,&C2,&G2,&C3}_tempo(52/63) 1/3{1/6,G1,G2}{1/2,Ab1,Ab2}{1/2,B1,B2}}} {_tempo(71/60) _vel(72){4,_tempo(80/71){15/8,G3,C4,Eb4}{1/8,D4}_tempo(80/71) _tempo(80/71){15/8,F3,B3,D4}{1/8,C4},_tempo(80/71){1/8,C2,G2}_tempo(80/71){1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}{1/8,C2,G2}{1/8,C3}1/6{1/12,D2}{1,Eb2 F#2}{1/8,G2,D3}_tempo(80/71){1/8,G3}{1/8,G2,D3}{1/8,G3}{1/8,G2,D3}{1/8,G3}1/6{1/12,G1}_tempo(52/71){1,Ab1 B1}}} {_tempo(4/5) _vel(72){11/2,_tempo(5/3){C3,Eb3,G3}{2,C4}1/4 _tempo(7/8){1/20,C3}_tempo(7/8){7/10,Eb3 G3 C4 Eb4 G4 C5 Eb5 G5 C6 Eb6 G6 C7 Eb7 G7}{1/2,C8}_tempo(13/12) - _tempo(13/12),_tempo(5/3){C3,Eb3,G3}_tempo(5/3){2,C4}1/4 _tempo(7/8) 3/4{1/2,Eb7}0 _tempo(13/12) 0 _tempo(13/12) 1,_tempo(5/3){C1,G1}_tempo(5/3){2,C2}{1/8,C1,G1}{1/8,C2}_tempo(7/8){1/20,Eb2}_tempo(7/8){1/20,G2}{13/20,C3 Eb3 G3 C4 Eb4 G4 C5 Eb5 G5 C6 Eb6 Ab6 C6}1/2 _tempo(13/12) -,_tempo(5/3){C1,G1}_tempo(5/3){2,C2}1/4 _tempo(7/8) 5/4 _tempo(13/12) -}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,- 3/4{1/4,Eb4}{3/4,Eb4}{1/4,Eb4}{3/4,Eb4}{1/4,Eb4}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{3/2,Ab4}{1,Cb5 Bb4}{3/2,Ab4},{3/2,Eb4}{1/2,Eb4}{3/4,Eb4}{1/4,Eb4}{3/4,Eb4}{1/4,Eb4},{3/2,Eb3,Cb4}{1/2,Eb3,Eb4}{1/2,Eb3,Db4}{3/2,Eb3,Cb4}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{3/2,G4}{1,F4 Eb4}{3/2,Ab4},{1/2,Eb4}Eb4{1/2,Eb4}{3/4,Eb4}{1/4,Eb4}{3/4,Eb4}{1/4,Eb4},{3/2,Eb3,Bb3}{1/2,Eb3,Ab3}{1/2,Eb3,G3}{3/2,Eb3,Cb4}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{7/4,Bb3,Db4,Eb4}{1/4,Ab3,Cb4,Eb4}{7/4,Ab3,Cb4,Eb4}{1/4,G3,Bb3,Eb4},{7/4,G2,Eb3}{1/4,Ab2,Eb3}{7/4,Ab2,Eb3}{1/4,Eb2,Bb2,Eb3}}} {_tempo(61/60) _vel(72){23/4,{3,G3,Bb3,Eb4}1/2{1/4,C4,C5}{3/4,C4,C5}{1/4,C4,C5}{3/4,C4,C5}{1/4,C4,C5},{3,Eb2,Bb2,Eb3}3/4 --,{7/20,Eb2& Bb2& Eb3& G3& Bb3& Eb4&}{53/20,&Eb2,&Bb2,&Eb3,&G3,&Bb3,&Eb4}11/4}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{3/2,F4}{1,C5 G4}{3/2,F4},{3/2,C4,C5}{1/2,Ab4}{3/4,C4,C5}{1/4,C4,C5}{3/4,C4,C5}{1/4,C4,C5},{3/2,C3,Ab3}{1/2,C3,C4}{1/2,C3,Bb3}{3/2,C3,Ab3}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{3/2,Eb4}{1,C5 C4}{3/2,F4},{3/2,C4,C5}{1/2,Db4}{3/4,C5}{1/4,C4,C5}{3/4,C4,C5}{1/4,C4,C5},{3/2,C3,G3}{1/2,C3,F3}{1/2,C3,E3}{3/2,C3,Ab3}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{7/4,C4,C5}{1/4,C4,F4,Ab4,C5}{7/4,C4,F4,Ab4,C5}{1/4,Db4,F4,Ab4,Db5},{7/4,G4,Bb4}9/4,{7/4,E2,C3,G3,Bb3}{1/4,F2}{7/4,C3,F3,Ab3}{1/4,Ab1&}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{15/4,Db4,F4,Ab4,Db5}1/8{1/8,C4,Gb4,A4,Eb5},{3/4,Ab2}{3,Db3 F3 Ab3 Db4 F4 Ab4 Db5 F5 Ab5 Db6 F6 Ab6}{1/4,- Ab1&},&Ab1 ---}} {_tempo(13/10) _vel(72){33/8,{1/4,Db4& Gb4& A4& Eb5&}{7/2,&Db4,&Gb4,&A4,&Eb5}1/4{1/8,Fb4,Ab4,Cb5,Fb5},{3/4,Ab2}{13/4,Eb3 Gb3 A3 C4 G4 Bb4 Eb5 Gb5 A5 Eb6 Gb6 A6 -}{1/8,Ab1&},&Ab1 25/8}} {_tempo(13/10) _vel(72){33/8,{15/4,Fb4,Ab4,C5,Fb5}1/4{1/8,F4,Ab4,Db5,F5},{3/4,Ab2}{13/4,Fb3 Ab3 Cb4 F4 Ab4 C5 F5 Ab5 Cb6 Fb6 Ab6 Cb7 -}{1/8,B1&},&Ab1 25/8}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){4,{7/2,F4,Ab4,Db5,F5}1/2,{3/4,B2}{13/4,F3 Ab3 Db4 F4 Ab4 Db5 F5 Ab5 Db6 F6 Ab6 Db7 -},&B1 ---}} {_tempo(73/60) _vel(72){2123/480, 4/5{2/5,Gb3,Db4,Gb4}{853/480,Gb3,Db4,Gb4}{107/240,F3,Ab3,Db4,F4}{F3&,Ab3&,Db4&,F4&}, 1{1/5,A1,A2}{853/480,A1,A2}{107/240,C2,C3}{C2&,C3&}}} {_tempo(67/60) _vel(72){5,{427/480,&F3,&Ab3,&Db4,&F4}{53/480,F3,Ab3,Db4}{4,Db4 C4}, 1{F3,Ab3}{2,Eb3,G3}1,{427/480,&C2,&C3}{53/480,C2,Bb2,Db3}{2,Bb2,Db3}{2,C3},-{4,C2 -}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(100){4,{3/2,F4,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,G4,G5}{1/2,A4,A5}{3/2,Bb4,D5,F5,Bb5},{3/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1,G3 A3}{3/2,D3,F3,Bb3}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{3/2,C5,F5,A5,C6}{1/2,D5,D6}{1/2,C5,C6}{3/2,Bb4,D5,F5,Bb5},{3/2,A2,F3,C4}{1,D4 C4}{3/2,D3,F3,Bb3}}} {_tempo(127/60) _vel(72){19/4, 1/8{1/4,A4,C5,F5,A5}{2,A4,C5,F5,A5}1/8{1/4,G4,Bb4,E5,G5}{2,G4,Bb4,E5,G5},{1/8,C2}{1/4,C3}{2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/8,C2}{1/4,C3}{2,E3,G3,C4,E4}}} {_tempo(13/6) _vel(72){35/8, 1/8{1/4,F4,A4,C5,F5}{2,F4,A4,C5,F5}--,{1/8,F1}{1/4,F2}{2,C3,F3,A3,C4}--}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{3/2,C5,E5,G5,C6}{1/2,D5,D6}{1/2,E5,E6}{3/2,F5,A5,C6,F6},{1/8,C2}{11/8,C3,E3,G3,C4}{1,D4 E4}{3/2,A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){17/4, 1/4{3/2,G5,C6,G6}{1/2,A5,A6}{1/2,G5,G6}{3/2,F5,A5,D6,F6},{1/4,E2 E3}{3/2,G3,C4,G4}{1,A4 G4}{3/2,F3,A3,D4,F4}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){9/2,{1/4,E5,G5,C6,E6}{2,E5,G5,C6,E6}{1/4,D5,F5,B5,D6}{2,D5,F5,B5,D6},{1/4,G2}{2,E3,G3,C4,E4}{1/4,G2}{2,G3,B3,D4,G4}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){17/4,{1/4,C5,E5,G5,C6}{2,C5,E5,G5,C6}--,{1/4,C2}{2,C3,E3,G3,C4}--}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(100){4,{3/2,F4,D5,F5}{1/2,A4,F5,A5}{1/2,G4,E5,G5}{3/2,F4,D5,F5},{3/2,D3,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,A3,F4}{1/2,E3,G3,E4}{3/2,D3,F3,D4}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{3/2,E4,C5,E5}{1/2,D4,Bb4,D5}{1/2,C4,A4,C5}{3/2,F4,A4,F5},{3/2,C3,E3,C4}{1/2,Bb2,D3,Bb3}{1/2,A2,C3,A3}{3/2,D3,F3,A3}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){9/2,{1/4,Bb3,G4,Bb4}{2,Bb3,G4,Bb4}{1/4,A3,F4,A4}{2,A3,F4,A4},{1/4,E2,C3,G3}{2,E2,C3,G3}{1/4,F2,D3,F3}{2,F2,C3,F3}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){17/4,{1/4,G3,C4,E4,G4}{2,G3,C4,E4,G4}--,{1/4,C2,G2,C3}{2,C2,G2,C3}--}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{3/2,C5,E5,C6}{1/2,D5,F5,D6}{1/2,E5,G5,E6}{3/2,F5,A5,F6},{3/2,C3,C4}{1/2,B2,B3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{3/2,A2,A3}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){17/4, 1/4{3/2,G5,Bb5,C6,G6}{1/2,F5,A5,F6}{1/2,E5,C6,E6}{3/2,D5,Bb5,D6},{1/4,E2 E3}{3/2,Bb3,C4,G4}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,C4,E4}{3/2,Bb2,F3,Bb3,D4}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{C5,F5,C6}{F5,F6}{1/2,C5,C6}{3/2,Bb4,F5,Bb5},{A2,F3,C4}F4{1/2,C4}{3/2,D3,F3},{2,C4}1/2{3/2,Bb3}}} {_tempo(127/60) _vel(72){19/4, 1/8{1/4,A4,C5,F5,A5}{2,A4,C5,F5,A5}1/8{1/4,G4,Bb4,E5,G5}{2,G4,Bb4,E5,G5},{1/8,C2}{1/4,C3}{2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/8,C2}{1/4,C3}{2,E3,G3,C4,E4}}} {_tempo(13/6) _vel(72){35/8, 1/8{1/4,F4,A4,C5,F5}{2,F4,A4,C5,F5}--,{1/8,F1}{1/4,F2}{2,C3,F3,A3,C4}--}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{3/2,F4,D5,F5}{1/2,A4,F5,A5}{1/2,G4,E5,G5}{3/2,F4,D5,F5},{3/2,D3,F3,D4}{1/2,F3,A3,F4}{1/2,E3,G3,E4}{3/2,D3,F3,D4}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{3/2,E4,C5,E5}{1/2,D4,Bb4,D5}{1/2,C4,A4,C5}{3/2,F4,A4,F5},{3/2,C3,E3,C4}{1/2,Bb2,D3,Bb3}{1/2,A2,C3,A3}{3/2,D3,F3,A3}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){9/2,{1/4,Bb3,G4,Bb4}{2,Bb3,G4,Bb4}{1/4,A3,D4,F#4,A4}{2,A3,D4,F#4,A4},{1/4,G2,C3,G3}{2,G2,C3,G3}{1/4,D2,F#2,D3}{2,D2,F#2,D3}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){17/4,{1/4,G3,Eb4,G4}{3,G3,Eb4,G4}-,{1/4,Eb2,Bb2,Eb3}{3,Eb2,Bb2,Eb3}-}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{3/2,C5,Eb5,Ab5,C6}{1/2,D5,F5,Bb5,D6}{1/2,Eb5,G5,C6,Eb6}{3/2,F5,Ab5,Db6,F6},{3/2,A2,Eb3,Ab3,C4}{1/2,F3,B3,D4}{1/2,Ab3,C4,Eb4}{3/2,Ab3,Db4,F4}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{3/2,G5,Bb5,C6,G6}{1/2,F5,A5,F6}{1/2,E5,C6,E6}{3/2,D5,Bb5,D6},{3/2,G3,Bb3,C4,G4}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,C4,E4}{3/2,Bb2,F3,Bb3,D4}}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){4,{C5,F5,C6}{F5,F6}{1/2,C5,C6}{3/2,Bb4,F5,Bb5},{A2,F3,C4}F4{1/2,C4}{3/2,D3,F3},{2,C4}1/2{3/2,Bb3}}} {_tempo(127/60) _vel(72){19/4, 1/8{1/4,A4,C5,F5,A5}{2,A4,C5,F5,A5}1/8{1/4,G4,Bb4,E5,G5}{2,G4,Bb4,E5,G5},{1/8,C2}{1/4,C3}{2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/8,C2}{1/4,C3}{2,E3,G3,C4,E4}}} {_tempo(13/6) _vel(72){35/8, 1/8{1/4,F4,A4,C5,F5}{2,F4,A4,C5,F5}--,{1/8,F1}{1/4,F2}{2,C3,F3,A3,C4}--}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(100){9/2, 1{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,G5,C6,E6,G6}{1/2,A5,C6,F6,A6}{3/2,Bb5,D6,F6,Bb6},{1/2,C3 D3 E3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,G3,C4,E4,G4}{1/2,A3,C4,F4,A4}{3/2,Bb3,D4,F4,Bb4},{1/2,C2 D2 E2}{1/2,F1,F2}7/2}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){9/2, 1{1/2,C4,F4,A4,C5}{1/2,C5,F5,A5,C6}{1/2,D6,F6,Bb6,D7}{1/2,C6,F6,A6,C7}{3/2,Bb5,D6,F6,Bb6},{1/2,C3 D3 E3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,C3,F3,A3}{1/2,C4,F4,A4}{1/2,D4,F4,Bb4,D5}{1/2,C4,F4,A4,C5}{3/2,Bb3,D4,F4,Bb4},{1/2,C2 D2 E2}{1/2,F1,F2}7/2}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){9/2, 1{1/2,A5,C6,F6,A6}{A5,C6,F6,A6}1/2{1/2,G5,Bb5,E6,G6}{G5,Bb5,E6,G6},{1/2,C3 D3 E3}{1/2,F3}{1/2,C3,F3,A3,C4}{4/5,A3,C4,F4,A4}{1/5,B1,B2}{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,C3,E3,G3,C4}{G3,C4,E4,G4},{1/2,C2 D2 E2}{1/2,F1,F2}7/2}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){33/8, 1/8 1/2{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,A5,C6,F6}{1/2,F6,A6,C7,F7}1/2 -,{1/8,E1,E2}{1/2,F1,F2}{1/2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F4,A4,C5,F5}1/2 -}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){9/2, 1{1/2,E4,G4,C5}{1/2,E5,G5,C6}{1/2,D6,G6,B6,D7}{1/2,E6,G6,C7,E7}{3/2,F6,A6,C7,F7},{1/2,G3 A3 B3}{1/2,C4}{1/2,E3,G3,C4}{1/2,E4,G4,C5}{1/2,G3,B3,D4,G4}{1/2,C4,E4,G4,C5}{3/2,A3,C4,F4,A4},{1/2,G2 A2 B2}{1/2,C2,C3}7/2}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){9/2, 1{1/2,C4,F4,A4,C5}{1/2,C5,F5,A5,C6}{1/2,D6,F6,Bb6,D7}{1/2,C6,F6,A6,C7}{3/2,Bb5,D6,F6,Bb6},{1/2,G3 A3 B3}{1/2,C4}{1/2,G3,C4,E4}{1/2,G4,C5,E5}{1/2,F4,A4,D5,F5}{1/2,C4,E4,G4,C5}{3/2,F4,A4,C5,F5},{1/2,G2 A2 B2}{1/2,C2,C3}7/2}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(72){9/2, 1{1/2,E5,G5,C6,E6}{E6,G6,C7,E7}1/2{1/2,D5,F5,B5,D6}{D6,F6,B6,D7},{1/2,G3 A3 B3}{1/2,C4}{1/2,G3,C4,E4,G4}{4/5,E4,G4,C5,E5}{1/5,F#2,F#3}{1/2,G2,G3}{1/2,G3,B3,D4,G4}{D4,G4,B4,D5},{1/2,G2 A2 B2}{1/2,C2,C3}7/2}} {_tempo(67/30) _vel(110){33/8, 1/8 1/2{1/2,E3,G3,C4}{1/2,E4,G4,C5}{1/2,E5,G5,C6}{1/2,C6,E6,G6,C7}1/2 -,{1/8,B1,B2}{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,E2,G2,C3}{1/2,E3,G3,C4}{1/2,E4,G4,C5}{1/2,C4,E4,G4,C5}1/2 -}} {_tempo(2) _vel(85){4, 1/2{1/6,C5}{1/6,F5,C6}{1/6,C6}{1/6,F6,C7}{1/6,C6}{1/6,F5,C6}{1/6,C5}{1/6,A5,C6}{1/6,C6}{1/6,G6,C7}{1/6,C6}{1/6,G5,C6}{1/6,C5}{1/6,F5,C6}{1/6,C6}{1/2,F6,C7}1/2,{3/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,C4,A4}{1/2,Bb3,C4,G4}{3/2,A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(2) _vel(72){4, 1/2{1/6,C5}{1/6,E5,C6}{1/6,C6}{1/6,E6,C7}{1/6,C6}{1/6,E5,C6}{1/2,C5 C6 C6}{1/6,G6,C7}{1/2,C6 C6 C5}{1/6,F5,C6}{1/6,C6}{1/2,F6,C7}1/2,{3/2,G3,C4,E4}{1/2,F3,C4,D4}{1/2,E3,C4}{3/2,A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(2) _vel(72){4,{1/2,C4,G4,Bb4}1/2{1/6,G6,Bb6}{1/3,E6 C6}{1/6,G5,Bb5}{1/3,E5 C5}{1/2,F4,A4}1/2{1/6,F6,A6}{1/3,D6 Bb5}{1/6,F5,A5}{1/3,D5 Bb4},{1,E2 C3 E3 G3 Bb3 C4}{1/2,G4,Bb4}1/2{1,F2 C3 F3 A3 C4 F4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(2) _vel(72){4,{1/2,E4,G4}1/2{1/6,E6,G6}{1/3,C6 G5}{1/6,G5,C6}{1/3,E5 C5}{1/6,E5,G5}{1/3,C5 G4}{1/6,G4,C5}{1/3,E4 C4}{1/6,E4,G4}{1/3,C4 G3}1/2,{1,C2 G2 C3 E3 G3 C4}{3/2,G4 --}-{1/2,E3 C3 G2}}} {_tempo(2) _vel(72){4, 1/2{1/2,E4,G4,C5}{1/2,E5,G5,C6}{1/2,D6,F6,D7}{1/2,E6,G6,E7}{3/2,F6,A6,F7},{1/2,C1}{1/2,E3,G3,C4}{1/2,E4,G4,C5}{1/2,D4,F4,B4,D5}{1/2,E4,G4,Bb4,E5}{3/2,F4,A4,F5}}} {_tempo(2) _vel(72){4,{1/2,G3,Bb3,G4}{1/2,G4,Bb4,G5}{1/2,G6,Bb6,G7}{1/2,F6,A6,F7}{1/2,E6,C7,E7}{3/2,D5,Bb5,D6},{1/2,E2,A2,C3}{1/2,E3,C4,E4}{1/2,E4,C5,E5}{1/2,F4,A4,F5}{1/2,C5,E5}{3/2,Bb3,F4,Bb4,D5}}} {_tempo(2) _vel(72){4,{1/3,C6,F6,C7}{1/3,F6,F7}{1/3,C6,C7}{1/3,F6,F7}{1/3,C6,C7}{1/3,F5,F6}{1/3,C5,C6}{1/3,F4,F5}{1/3,C4,C5}{Bb3,F4,Bb4},{3,A5 D6 C5 F5 C5 F4 C4 F3 C3}{D2,Bb2},{F4,D5}---}} {_tempo(23/12) _vel(72){21/5,{1/2,A3,F4,A4}{1/2,A4,F5,A5}{4/5,A5,F6,A6}{2/5,G3,C4,G4}{1/2,G3,C4,G4}{1/2,G4,C5,G5}{G5,C6,G6},{1/2,C2,A2,C3}{1/2,C3,A3,C4}{4/5,C4,F4,A4,C5}{2/5,C2,E2,G2,C3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}{1/2,C3,E3,G3,C4}{C4,E4,G4,C5}}} {_tempo(39/20) _vel(72){17/4,{1/4,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F4,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,F5,A5,C6,F6}{1/2,F6&,A6&,C7&,F7&}{&F6,&A6,&C7,&F7}-,{1/4,F1,A1,C2,F2}{1/2,F1,A1,C2,F2}{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F4&,A4&,C5&,F5&}{&F4,&A4,&C5,&F5}-}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(85){4, 1/2{7/2,C5 C6 D6 C6 C7 D7 C7 C6 D6 C6 C5 C6 D6 C6 C7 D7 C7 C6 D6 C6 C5 C6 D6 C6 C7 D7 C7 C6},{3/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,C4,A4}{1/2,Bb3,C4,G4}{3/2,A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(72){4,{4,D6 C6 C5 C6 D6 C6 C7 D7 C7 C6 D6 C6 C5 C6 D6 C6 C7 D7 C7 C6 D6 C6 C5 C6 D6 C6 C7 D7 C7 C6 F6 A6},{3/2,G3,C4,E4}{1/2,F3,C4,D4}{1/2,E3,C4}{3/2,A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){643/160,{1/10,D7}{19/10,C#7 C7 B6 Bb6 A6 Ab6 G6 F#6 F6 E6 Eb6 D6 C#6 C6 B5 Bb5 A5 Ab5 G5}{323/160,F#5 F5 E5 Eb5 D5 C#5 C5 B4 Bb4 A4 Ab4 G4 F#4 F4 E4 Eb4 D4 C#4 D4}, 3/160{2,Bb2,G3,D4}{2,D3,A3,C4,F#4}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){33/8,{1/8,G3,E4,G4}{4,D4 C#4 C4 B3 Bb3 A3 Ab3 G3 F#3 F3 E3 Eb3 D3 Db3 C3 B2 Bb2 A2 Ab2 G2 F#2 F2 E2 Eb2 E2 F2 F#2 G2 Ab2 A2 Bb2 B2},{1/8,G2,E3,G3}{4,D3 C#3 C3 B2 Bb2 A2 Ab2 G2 F#2 F2 E2 Eb2 D2 Db2 C2 B1 Bb1 A1 Ab1 G1 F#1 F1 E1 Eb1 E1 F1 F#1 G1 Ab1 A1 Bb1 B1}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(100){4,{1/2,C3}{1/2,C4,E4,G4,C5}{1/2,C5,E5,G5,C6}{1/2,D6,F6,D7}{1/2,E6,G6,E7}{3/2,F6,A6,F7},{1/2,C1,C2}{1/2,C3,E3,G3,C4}{1/2,C4,E4,G4,C5}{1/2,B3,Ab4,B4}{1/2,Bb3,G4,Bb4}{3/2,A3,F4,A4}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(72){4,{1/2,G3,Bb3,G4}{1/2,G4,Bb4,G5}{1/2,G5,Bb5,G6}{1/2,F6,A6,F7}{1/2,E6,C7,E7}{3/2,D6,Bb6,D7},{1/2,E2,A2,C3}{1/2,E3,C4,E4}{1/2,E4,C5,E5}{1/2,F5,A5,C6,F6}{1/2,C6,E6}{3/2,Bb4,F5,Bb5,D6}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(72){4,{1/3,C6,F6,C7}{1/3,F6,F7}{1/3,C6,C7}{1/3,F6,F7}{1/3,C6,C7}{1/3,F5,F6}{1/3,C5,C6}{1/3,F4,F5}{1/3,C4,C5}{Bb3,F4,Bb4},{1/3,F4,D5,A5}{8/3,D6 C5 F5 C5 F4 C4 F3 C3}{D2,Bb2}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(110){4,{1/2,A3,F4,A4}{1/2,A4,F5,A5}{7/8,A5,F6,A6}{1/8,G3,C4,G4}{1/2,G3,C4,G4}{1/2,G4,C5,G5}{7/8,G5,C6,G6}{1/8,F3,A3,C4,F4},{1/2,C2,A2,C3}{1/2,C3,A3,C4}{7/8,C4,A4,C5}{1/8,C2,E2,G2,C3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}{1/2,C3,E3,G3,C4}{7/8,C4,E4,G4,C5}{1/8,F1,A1,C2,F2}}} {_tempo(5/3) _vel(72){4,{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F4,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,F5,A5,C6,F6}{1/2,F6&,A6&,C7&,F7&}{&F6,&A6,&C7,&F7}-,{1/2,F1,A1,C2,F2}{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F4&,A4&,C5&,F5&}{&F4,&A4,&C5,&F5}-, 31/8 1/8}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(45){1/2,{1/2,A3&}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,&A3,D4,A4}{1/2,A3,D4,A4}{1/2,A3,D4,A4}{1/4,A3,D4,G#4}{1/4,B4},{3/20,D2& F#3&}{7/20,&D2,&F#3}{1/2,A2,F#3}{1/2,D3,F#3}{1/2,A2,F#3}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){5/2,{1/2,A4}{1/2,G4 B4}{1/2,A4}D4&,{1/2,A3,D4}{1/2,A3,D4}{1/2,A3,D4}1,{1/2,D2,F#3}{1/2,A2,F#3}{1/2,D3,F#3}-}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,&D4,F#4,C5}{1/2,D4,F#4,C5}{1/2,D4,F#4,C5}{1/2,B4 D5}, 3/2{1/2,D4,F#4},{1/2,D2,A3}{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,D3,A3}{1/2,A2,A3}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){5/2,{1/2,C5}{1/2,B4 D5}{1/2,C5}D4&,{1/2,D4,F#4}{1/2,D4,F#4}{1/2,D4,F#4}1,{1/2,D2,A3}{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,D3,A3}-}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,&D4,G4,B4}{1/2,D4,G4,B4}{1/2,D4,G4,B4}{1/2,A#4 C5}, 3/2{1/2,D4,F#4},{1/2,G2,B3}{1/2,D3,B3}{1/2,G3,B3}{1/2,D3,B3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,B4}{1/2,A#4 C5}B4,{1/2,D4,G4}{1/2,D4,F#4}{D4,G4},{1/2,G2,B3}{1/2,D3,B3}{G3,B3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,B4,G5,B5}{1/2,B4,G5,B5}{1/2,B4,G5,B5}{1/2,A#4,F#5}, 3/2{1/2,A#5 C6},{3/20,G2& D4&}{7/20,&G2,&D4}{1/2,D3,D4}{1/2,B3,D4}{1/2,D3,D4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,B4,G5}{1/2,A#4,F#5}{B4,G5},{1/2,B5}{1/2,A#5 C6}B5,{3/20,G2& D4&}{7/20,&G2,&D4}{1/2,D3,D4}{G3,D4}}} {_tempo(2) _vel(45){4,{3/2,D5,B5}{1/2,D5,D6}{1/2,D5,C#6}{3/2,D5,B5},{3/2,G4}{1,B4 A4}{3/2,G4}}} {_tempo(5/12) _vel(72){1081/240,{3/2,D5,A5}{1/2,D5,G5}{1/2,D5,F#5}G5 _tempo(28/25) 1/2 _tempo(28/25) 1/2 1/240,---{1/2,C#5}_tempo(28/25){7/160,F#5}_tempo(28/25){7/160,G5}{7/8,A#5 B5 E6 E#6 F#6 A6 G6 E6 C#6 A#5 G5 E5 E#5 F#5 A5 G5 B#4 C#5 F#5 E5}{1/24,- D5},{3/2,F#4,A4}{1/2,E4,A4}{1/2,D4,A4}{2,A#3,E4,G4}1/240}} {_tempo(32/15) _vel(85){2,B4 1/2 _tempo(17/16){1/2,D4}_tempo(9/8),D5 1,{B3,F#4}1/2 _tempo(17/16) _tempo(9/8) 1/8 3/8}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(72){2,{1,F#4 G4 A4 B4}{1,A4 C#5},{1,D4}{1/2,D4,F#4}{1/2,C#4,G4},{A2,F#3,A3}{1/2,A2,F#3,A3}{1/2,A2,E3,A3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(72){2,D5{1,- D5},{D4,F#4}1,{D3,A3}-}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(72){2,{1,F#5 G5 A5 B5}{1,A5 C#6},{1,D5}{1/2,D5,F#5}{1/2,C#5,G5},{A3,F#4,A4}{1/2,A3,F#4,A4}{1/2,A3,E4,A4}}} {_tempo(113/60) _vel(72){5/2,D6 -{1/2,A5},{D5,F#5}3/2,{D4,A4}- 1/2}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,A5,F#6,A6}{1/2,A5,F#6,A6}{1/2,A5,F#6,A6}{1/2,G#6 B6}, 3/2{1/2,G#5,E#6},{1/2,G2,G3}{1/2,A3,F#4,A4}{1/2,C#4,F#4,A4}{1/2,A3,F#4,A4}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){5/2,{1/2,A6}{1/2,G#6 B6}{1/2,A6}D6,{1/2,A5,F#6}{1/2,G#5,E#6}{1/2,A5,F#6}1,{1/2,D4,F#4,A4}{1/2,A3,F#4,A4}{1/2,D4,F#4,A4}-}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,C6,A6,C7}{1/2,C6,A6,C7}{1/2,C6,A6,C7}{1/2,B6 D7}, 3/2{1/2,B5,G#6},{1/2,D2,D3}{1/2,C4,A4,C5}{1/2,E4,A4,C5}{1/2,C4,A4,C5}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){5/2,{1/2,C7}{1/2,B6 D7}{1/2,C7}F#6,{1/2,C6,A6}{1/2,B5,G#6}{1/2,C6,A6}1,{1/2,F#4,A4,C5}{1/2,C4,A4,C5}{1/2,F#4,A4,C5}-}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,B5,G6,B6}{1/2,B5,G6,B6}{1/2,B5,G6,B6}{1/2,A#6 C7}, 3/2{1/2,A#5,F#6},{1/2,G2,G3}{1/2,B3,G4,B4}{1/2,D4,G4,B4}{1/2,B3,G4,B4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,B6}{1/2,A#6 C7}B6,{1/2,B5,G6}{1/2,A#5,F#6}{B5,G6},{1/2,D4,G4,B4}{1/2,B3,G4,B4}{D4,G4,B4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,D6,B6,D7}{1/2,D6,B6,D7}{1/2,D6,B6,D7}{1/2,C#7 E7}, 3/2{1/2,C#6,A#6},{1/2,G2,G3}{1/2,D4,B4,D5}{1/2,F#4,B4,D5}{1/2,D4,B4,D5}}} {_tempo(4/3) _vel(72){5/2,{1/2,D7}{1/2,C#7 E7}{1/2,D7}-,{1/2,D6,B6}{1/2,C#6,A#6}{1/2,D6,B6}1,{1/2,G4,B4,D5}{1/2,D4,B4,D5}{1/2,G4,B4,D5}-}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C#4,D4,F#4,A4}{1/2,C#4,D4,F#4,A4}{1/2,C#4,D4,F#4,A4}{1/2,A#3 C4},{1/2,B1,B2}{1/2,B1,B2}{1/2,B1,B2}{1/2,A#2 C3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,C4,D4,F#4,A4}{1/2,A#3 C4}{1/2,C4,D4,F#4,A4}1/2,{1/2,B1,B2}{1/2,A#2 C3}{1/2,B1,B2}1/2}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,C#4,D4,F#4,A4,D5}{1/2,C#4,D4,F#4,A4,D5}{1/2,C#4,D4,F#4,A4,D5}{1/2,A#3 C4},{1/2,B1,B2}{1/2,B1,B2}{1/2,B1,B2}{1/2,A#2 C3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,A3,B3,D#4,F#4,B4}{1/2,A#3 C4}{1/2,A3,B3,D#4,F#4,B4}1/2,{1/2,G1,G2}{1/2,A#2 C3}{1/2,B1,B2}1/2}} {_tempo(71/30) _vel(85){2,_tempo(72/71){1/2,B4,G#5,B5}{1/2,B4,G#5,B5}{1/2,B4,G#5,B5}{1/2,A#4 G5 C#6},_tempo(68/71){1/2,E2,E3}_tempo(72/71){1/2,G#3,E4}{1/2,B3,G#4}{1/2,G#3,E4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,B4,G#5,B5}{1/2,A#4 G5 C#6}{1/2,B4,G#5,B5}1/2,{1/2,E2,E3}{1/2,G#3,E4}{1/2,B3,G#4}{1/2,G#3,E4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(85){2,{1/2,D5,B5,D6}{1/2,D5,B5,D6}{1/2,D5,B5,D6}{1/2,C#5 A#5 E6},{1/2,E2,E3}{1/2,B3,G#4}{1/2,D4,B4}{1/2,B3,G#4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,D5,B5,D6}{1/2,C#5 A#5 E6}{1/2,D5,B5,D6}1/2,{1/2,E2,E3}{1/2,B3,G#4}{1/2,D4,B4}{1/2,B3,G#4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,C#5,A5,C#6}{1/2,C#5,A5,C#6}{1/2,C#5,A5,C#6}{1/2,B#4 G#5 D6},{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,A3,E4}{1/2,C#4,A4}{1/2,A3,E4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,C#5,A5,C#6}{1/2,B#4 G#5 D6}{1/2,C#5,A5,C#6}1/2,{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,A3,E4}{1/2,C#4,A4}{1/2,A3,E4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,E5,C#6,E6}{1/2,E5,C#6,E6}{1/2,E5,C#6,E6}{1/2,D#5 B5 F#6},{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,C#4,A4}{1/2,E4,C#5}{1/2,C#4,A4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,E5,C#6,E6}{1/2,D#5 B5 F#6}{1/2,E5,C#6,E6}1/2,{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,C#4,A4}{1/2,E4,C#5}1/2}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(45){4,{3/2,E5,C#6}{1/2,E5,E6}{1/2,E5,D#6}{3/2,E5,C#6},{3/2,G4}{1,B4 A4}{3/2,G4}}} {_tempo(5/12) _vel(72){361/80,{3/2,D5,A5}{1/2,D5,G5}{1/2,D5,F#5}{1/8,B5}{7/8,A5}_tempo(28/25){3/80,G5}_tempo(28/25){15/16,A5 B#5 D6 F#6 G6 G6 B6 A6 F#6 D6 B#5 A5 F#5 D5 E5 E#5 F#5 G5 G5 B5 A5 D5 D5 G5 F#5}{3/80,- E5}, 1/80{3/2,F#4,A4}{1/2,E4,A4}{1/2,D4,A4}{A#3,E4,G4}_tempo(28/25) -}} {_tempo(22/15) _vel(85){5/2,_tempo(25/22){C#5,E5}- _tempo(17/11){1/2,E4}_tempo(18/11),_tempo(25/22){C#4,G#4}_tempo(25/22) - _tempo(17/11) _tempo(18/11) 1/2}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(72){2,{1,G#4 A4 B4 C#5}{1,B4 D#5},{1,E4}{1/2,E4,G#4}{1/2,D#4,A4},{B2,G#3,B3}{1/2,B2,G#3,B3}{1/2,B2,F#3,B3}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(72){2,{E4,G#4,E5}{1,- E5},{E3,B3}-}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(72){2,{1,G#5 A5 B5 C#6}{1/2,E5,B5}{1/2,D#5,A5,D#6},E5 1,{B3,G#4}{1/2,B3,G#4,B4}{1/2,B3,F#4,B4}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(72){2,{E5,G#5,E6}-,{E4,B4}{1,- E2}}} {_tempo(34/15) _vel(72){2,{B3,E4,B4}{1/2,B3,E4,G#4}{1/2,A3,D#4},{1,G#2 A2 B2 C#3}{1,B2 B1}}} {_tempo(17/10) _vel(72){3,{G#3,E4}--,E2 --}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/8,D#5}{3/8,E5&}{1/4,&E5,D6}1/4{1/8,E5&}{3/8,&E5,D6}{1/8,E5&}{3/8,&E5,D6},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/8,E5}{1/4,D6}{1/8,C6}{3/8,B5}{1/8,A5}{3/8,G#5}{1/8,A5}{3/8,B5}{1/8,G5},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/8,B5}{1/4,A5}{1/8,G#5}{3/8,A5}{1/8,B5}{1/8,D6}{1/4,C6}{1/8,B5}{3/8,C6}{1/8,D6},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{3/8,D#6}{1/8,E6}{3/8,F6}{1/8,E6}{3/8,D6}{1/8,C6}{3/8,B5}{1/8,A5},{3/8,A3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) 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D7&}{3/16,&D6,&E6,&D7}{1/8,C6,C7}{3/8,B5,B6}{1/8,A5,A6}{3/8,G#5,G#6}{1/8,A5,A6}{3/8,B5,B6}{1/8,G#5,G#6},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{3/8,A5,A6}{1/8,G#5,G#6}{3/8,A5,A6}{1/8,B5,B6}{3/8,C6,C7}{1/8,B5,B6}{3/8,C6,C7}{1/8,D6,D7},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{3/8,D#6,D#7}{1/8,E6,E7}{3/8,F6,F7}{1/8,E6,E7}{3/8,D6,D7}{1/8,C6,C7}{3/8,B5,B6}{1/8,A5,A6},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,E5,E6}{1/4,D6,D7}1/4{1/5,D6& E6& D7&}{3/10,&D6,&E6,&D7}{1/2,D6,E6,D7},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{3/16,D6& E6& D7&}{3/16,&D6,&E6,&D7}{1/8,C6,C7}{3/8,B5,B6}{1/8,A5,A6}{3/8,G#5,G#6}{1/8,E5,E6}{3/8,F#5,F#6}{1/8,G#5,G#6},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{3/8,A5,A6}{1/8,G#5,G#6}{3/8,A5,A6}{1/8,B6}{3/8,C6,C7}{1/8,E5,E6}{3/8,F#5,F#6}{1/8,G#5,G#6},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,A5,A6}{3/8,A5,A6}{1/8,G5,G#6}{1/2,A5,A6}1/2, 1/3{1/6,A6 B6}3/2,{3/8,F5}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}{1/4,A3& C4& E4& A4&}{1/4,&A3,&C4,&E4,&A4}1/2}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(110){9/4,{1/4,A4,F5,A5}{A4,F5,A5}{Bb4,E5,Bb5},{1/4,F3,C4,F4}{F3,C4,F4}{C3,G3,C4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{3/2,A4,F5,A5}{1/4,A5,F6}{1/4,Bb5,D6},{3/2,F2,C3,F3}1/2}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{1/4,A5,F6}{1/4,Bb5,D6}{1/4,Bb5,D6}{1/4,A5,C6}{1/4,A5,C6}{1/4,G5,Bb5}{1/4,G5,Bb5}{1/4,G#5,B5},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,G3,Bb3,E4}{1/2,G3,Bb3,E4}{1/2,G3,Bb3,E4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{1/4,Bb5,D6}{1/4,A5,C6}{1/4,A5,C6}{1/4,G5,Bb5}{F5,A5},{1/2,F2,F3}{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(110){9/4,{1/4,A4,F5,A5}{A4,F5,A5}{Bb4,E5,Bb5},{1/4,F3,C4,F4}{F3,C4,F4}{C3,G3,C4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{A4,F5,A5}{1,- A5 A6 G#5},{3/2,F2,C3,F3}1/2}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{2,G#6 G5 G6 F5 F6 E5 E6 D5},{1/2,A2}{1/2,D4,F4}{1/2,A3}{1/2,C#4,G4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{1,D6 C#5 C#6 D5&}{1/2,&D5,D6}1/2,{1/2,D4,F4}{1/2,A3,E4,G4}{1/2,D4,F4}1/2}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(110){9/4,{1/4,A4,F5,A5}{A4,F5,A5}{Bb4,E5,Bb5},{1/4,F3,C4,F4}{F3,C4,F4}{C3,G3,C4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{3/2,A4,F5,A5}{1/4,A5,F6}{1/4,Bb5,D6},{3/2,F2,C3,F3}1/2}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{1/4,A5,F6}{1/4,Bb5,D6}{1/4,Bb5,D6}{1/4,A5,C6}{1/4,A5,C6}{1/4,G5,Bb5}{1/4,G5,Bb5}{1/4,G#5,B5},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,G3,Bb3,E4}{1/2,G3,Bb3,E4}{1/2,G3,Bb3,E4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{1/4,Bb5,D6}{1/4,A5,C6}{1/4,A5,C6}{1/4,G5,Bb5}{F5,A5},{1/2,F2,F3}{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(110){9/4,{1/4,A4,F5,A5}{A4,F5,A5}{Bb4,E5,Bb5},{1/4,F3,C4,F4}{F3,C4,F4}{C3,G3,C4}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{A4,F5,A5}1/2{1/4,A3,A4}1/4,{F2,C3,F3}1/4{1/4,A1,A2}1/4{1/4,Bb1,A2}}} {_tempo(38/15) _vel(72){2,{1/4,G#3,G#4}1/4{1/4,G3,G4}1/4{1/4,F3,F4}1/4{1/4,E3,E4}1/4, 1/4{1/4,Bb1,A2}1/4{1/4,C2,A2}1/4{1/4,C#2,A2}1/4{1/4,A1,A2}}} {_tempo(127/60) _vel(72){5/2,{1/4,D3,D4}1/4{1/4,C#3,C#4}1/4{1/4,D3,D4}1/4 -, 1/4{1/4,D2,A2}1/4{1/4,C2,A2}1/4{1/4,D2,A2}-}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/8,D#5}{3/8,E5&}{1/4,&E5,D6}1/4{1/8,E5&}{3/8,&E5,D6}{1/8,E5&}{3/8,&E5,D6},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/8,E5}{1/4,D6}{1/8,C6}{3/8,B5}{1/8,A5}{3/8,G#5}{1/8,A5}{3/8,B5}{1/8,G5},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/8,B5}{1/4,A5}{1/8,G#5}{3/8,A5}{1/8,B5}{1/8,D6}{1/4,C6}{1/8,B5}{3/8,C6}{1/8,D6},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{3/8,D#6}{1/8,E6}{3/8,F6}{1/8,E6}{3/8,D6}{1/8,C6}{3/8,B5}{1/8,A5},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/2,E5&}{1/4,&E5,D6}1/4{1/8,E5&}{3/8,&E5,D6}{1/8,E5&}{3/8,&E5,D6},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/8,E5}{1/4,D6}{1/8,C6}{3/8,B5}{1/8,A5}{3/8,G#5}{1/8,E5}{3/8,F#5}{1/8,G#5},{3/8,A3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/8,B5}{1/4,A5}{1/8,G#5}{3/8,A5}{1/8,B5}{1/8,D#6}{1/4,C6}{1/8,E5}{3/8,F#5}{1/8,G#5},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/3,A5}{1/6,A5 B5}{3/8,A5}{1/8,G#5}A5,{3/8,A3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,A3,C4}{1/8,D4}{1/2,A4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(45){2,{2,D#6 E6 F6 E6 D7 E6 F6 E6 D7 E6 F6 E6 D7 E6 F6 E6},{2,- D7 D7 D7},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,D7 E6 C7 E6 B6 E6 A6 E6 G#6 E6 A6 E6 B6 E6 G#6 E6},{2,D7 C7 B6 A6 G#6 A6 B6 G#6},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 E6 G#6 E6 A6 E6 B6 E6 C7 E6 B6 E6 C7 E6 D7 E6},{2,A6 G#6 A6 B6 C7 B6 C7 D7},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,D#7 E6 E7 E6 F7 E6 E7 E6 D7 E6 C7 E6 B6 E6 A6 E6},{2,D#7 E7 F7 E7 D7 C7 B6 A6},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,D#6 E6 F6 E6 D7 E6 F6 E6 D7 E6 F6 E6 D7 E6 F6 E6},{2,- D7 D7 D7},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,D7 E6 C7 E6 B6 E6 A6 E6 G#6 E6 A6 E6 B6 E6 G#6 E6},{2,D7 C7 B6 A6 G#6 A6 B6 G#6},{3/8,G#3}{1/8,D4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,B3}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{1/64,B6}{7/64,A6}{15/8,E6 G#6 E6 A6 E6 C7 E6 E7 E6 D#6 E6 F#6 E6 G#6 E6},{2,A6 G#6 A6 C7 E7 D#6 F#6 G#6},{3/8,A3}{1/8,E4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,A4}{3/8,E3}{1/8,C4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,E4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(31){2,{2,A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6 A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6},{3/20,A#3& C4& A4&}{17/20,&A#3,&C4,&A4}427/480{53/480,A4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6 A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6},{2,A4 G5 G5 G5}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6 A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6},{3/8,G5}{1/8,F5}{3/8,E5}{1/8,D5}{3/8,C#5}{1/8,D5}{3/8,E5}{1/8,C5}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6 A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6},{1/8,E5}{1/4,D5}{1/8,C#5}{3/8,D5}{1/8,E5}{1/8,G5}{1/4,F5}{1/8,E5}{3/8,F5}{1/8,G5}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6 A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6},{3/8,G#5}{1/8,A5}{3/8,Bb5}{1/8,A5}{3/8,G5}{1/8,F5}{3/8,E5}{1/8,D5}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,G#6 E6 B6 E6 E7 E6 B6 E6 G#6 E6 B6 E6 E7 E6 B6 E6},{2,E4 D5 D5 D5}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,G#6 E6 B6 E6 E7 E6 B6 E6 G#6 E6 B6 E6 E7 E6 B6 E6},{3/8,D5}{1/8,C5}{3/8,B4}{1/8,A4}{3/8,G#4}{1/8,A4}{3/8,B4}{1/8,G#4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 E6 C7 E6 E7 E6 C7 E6 A6 E6 C7 E6 E7 E6 C7 E6},{1/8,B4}{1/4,A4}{1/8,G#4}{3/8,A4}{1/8,B4}{1/8,D5}{1/4,C5}{1/8,B4}{3/8,C5}{1/8,D5}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 E6 C7 E6 E7 E6 C7 E6 A6 E6 C7 E6 E7 E6 C7 E6},{3/8,D#5}{1/8,E5}{3/8,F5}{1/8,E5}{3/8,D5}{1/8,C5}{3/8,B4}{1/8,A4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6 A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6},{2,E4 D5 D5 D5}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6 A6 E6 C#7 E6 E7 E6 C#7 E6},{3/8,G4}{1/8,F4}{3/8,E4}{1/8,D4}{3/8,C#4}{1/8,D4}{3/8,E4}{1/8,C#4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6 A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6},{1/8,E4}{1/4,D4}{1/8,C#4}{3/8,D4}{1/8,E4}{1/8,G4}{1/4,F4}{1/8,E4}{3/8,F4}{1/8,G4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6 A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6},{3/8,G#4}{1/8,A4}{3/8,Bb4}{1/8,A4}{3/8,G4}{1/8,F4}{3/8,E4}{1/8,D4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6 A6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6},{2,F3 Eb4 Eb4 Eb4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,A6 F6 C7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6 A6 F6 C7 F6 F7 F6 C7 F6},{3/8,Eb4}{1/8,D4}{3/8,C4}{1/8,Bb3}{3/8,A3}{1/8,Bb3}{3/8,C4}{1/8,A3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,Bb6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6 Bb6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6},{2,B3 Ab4 Ab4 Ab4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,Bb6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6 Bb6 F6 D7 F6 F7 F6 D7 F6},{3/8,Ab4,Bb4}{1/8,G4}{3/8,F4}{1/8,Eb4}{3/8,D4}{1/8,Eb4}{3/8,F4}{1/8,D4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,Bb6 G6 Eb7 G6 G7 G6 Eb7 G6 Bb6 G6 Eb7 G6 G7 G6 Eb7 G6},{2,Eb4 Db5 Db5 Db5}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,Bb6 G6 Eb7 G6 G7 G6 Eb7 G6 Bb6 G6 Eb7 G6 G7 G6 Eb7 G6},{3/8,Db5,Eb5}{1/8,C5}{3/8,Bb4}{1/8,Ab4}{3/8,G4}{1/8,Ab4}{3/8,Bb4}{1/8,G4}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,C7 G6 E7 G6 G7 G6 E7 G6 G6 E6 C7 E6 E7 E6 C7 E6},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,E6 C6 G6 C6 C7 C6 G6 C6 C6 G5 E6 G5 G6 G5 E6 G5},{3/8,Bb2,Bb3}{1/8,Ab2,Ab3}{3/8,G2,G3}{1/8,F2,F3}{3/8,E2,E3}{1/8,F2,F3}{3/8,G2,G3}{1/8,E2,E3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,C6 Ab5 E6 Ab5 Ab6 Ab5 E6 Ab5 Ab5 F5 C6 F5 F6 F5 C6 F5},{1/4,F2,F3}{1/4,E2,E3}{1/4,F2,F3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,Ab2,Ab3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,Ab2,Ab3}{1/4,Bb2,Bb3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,F5 C5 Ab5 C5 C6 C5 Ab5 C5 C5 Ab4 F5 Ab4 Ab5 Ab4 F5 Ab4},{1/4,B2,B3}{1/4,C3,C4}{1/4,Db3,Db4}{1/4,C3,C4}{1/4,Bb2,Bb3}{1/4,Ab2,Ab3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,F2,F3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,G5 E5 C6 E5 E6 E5 C6 E5 E5 C5 G5 C5 C6 C5 G5 C5},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,C5 G4 E5 G4 G5 G4 E5 G4 G4 E4 C5 E4 E5 E4 C5 E4},{1/4,Bb2,Bb3}{1/4,Ab2,Ab3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,F2,F3}{1/4,E2,E3}{1/4,F2,F3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,F2,F3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2,{2,C5 Ab4 F5 Ab4 Ab5 Ab4 F5 Ab4 Ab4 F4 C5 F4 F5 F4 C5 F4},{1/4,F2,F3}{1/4,E2,E3}{1/4,F2,F3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,Ab2,Ab3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,Ab2,Ab3}{1/4,Bb2,Bb3}}} {_tempo(8/5) _vel(72){2, 1/8{7/4,B3 C4 Db4 C4 Bb3 Ab3 G3}{1/8,F3},{2,B2 C3 Db3 C3 Bb2 Ab2 G2 F2}}} {_tempo(7/5) _vel(100){2,{3/4,F3,Ab3,Db4}{1/4,Ab3,C4,Eb4}{1/4,Ab3,Db4,F4}{3/4,Gb3,Db4,Gb4},{3/4,Db2,Db3}{1/4,Ab1,Ab2}{1/4,Db2,Db3}{3/4,Bb1,Bb2}}} {_tempo(7/5) _vel(72){2,{3/4,Ab3,Db4,Ab4}{1/4,Bb3,Db4,Bb4}{1/4,Ab3,Db4,Ab4}{3/4,Gb3,Db4,Gb4},{3/4,F1,F2}{1/4,Gb1,Gb2}{1/4,F1,F2}{3/4,Bb1,Bb2}}} {_tempo(6/5) _vel(72){3,{1/2,F3,Db4,F4}{F3,Db4,F4}{1/2,Eb3,Gb3,C4,Eb4}{Eb3,Gb3,C4,Eb4},{1/2,Ab1,F2,Ab2}{Ab1,F2,Ab2}{1/2,Ab1,Eb2,Ab2}{Ab1,Eb2,Ab2}}} {_tempo(67/60) _vel(72){3,{1/2,F3,Db4}{F3,Db4}{1/2,Db4,F4,Db5}{1/2,Db5,F5,Db6}{1/2,Db6,F6,Db7},{1/2,Db2,Ab2,Db3}{Db2,Ab2,Db3}{1/2,Db3,Ab3}{1/2,Db4,Ab4}{1/2,Db5,Ab5}}} {_tempo(7/5) _vel(72) 2} {_tempo(7/5) _vel(72){2,{3/4,C4,Eb4,Ab4}{1/4,Bb3,Eb4,Bb4}{1/4,C4,Eb4,Bb4}{3/4,Db4,Ab4,Db5},{3/4,Ab2,Eb3,Ab3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,Ab2,Eb3,Ab3}{3/4,F2,F3}}} {_tempo(7/5) _vel(72){2,{3/4,Eb4,Ab4,Eb5}{1/4,F4,Ab4,F5}{1/4,Eb4,Ab4,Eb5}{3/4,Db4,Ab4,Db5},{3/4,C2,C3}{1/4,Db2,Db3}{1/4,C2,C3}{3/4,F2,F3}}} {_tempo(6/5) _vel(72){3,{1/2,C4,Eb4,Ab4,C5}{C4,Eb4,Ab4,C5}{1/2,Bb3,Db4,Gb4,Bb4}{Bb3,Db4,Gb4,Bb4},{1/2,Eb2,C3,Eb3}{Eb2,C3,Eb3}{1/2,Eb2,Bb2,Eb3}{Eb2,Bb2,Eb3}}} {_tempo(19/15) _vel(72){5/2,{1/2,Ab3,C4,Eb4,Ab4}{1/2,Ab3,C4,Eb4,Ab4}{1/2,Ab4,C5,Eb5,Ab5}{Ab5,C6,Eb6,Ab6},{1/2,Ab1,C2,Eb2,Ab2}{1/2,Ab1,C2,Eb2,Ab2}{1/2,Ab2,C3,Eb3,Ab3}{Ab3,C4,Eb4,Ab4}}} {_tempo(7/5) _vel(85){2,- 1/2{1/2,- C4}}} {_tempo(7/5) _vel(72){2,{3/4,C4,F4}{1/4,Ab4}{1/4,C4,Gb4}{3/4,C4,F4},{3/4,C3,Ab3}{1/4,C3,C4}{1/4,C3,Bb3}{3/4,C3,Ab3}}} {_tempo(7/5) _vel(72){2,{3/4,Bb3,Eb4}{1/4,Ab3,Db4}{1/4,G3,C4}{3/4,Ab3,F4},{3/4,C3,G3}{1/4,C3,F3}{1/4,C3,E3}{3/4,F2,C3,F3}}} {_tempo(6/5) _vel(72){3,{1/2,G3,Bb3}{G3,Bb3}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{F3,Ab3},{1/2,E2,C3}{E2,C3}{1/2,F2,C3}{F2,C3}}} {_tempo(3/5) _vel(72){5/2,{1/2,F3,Ab3,Db4}{2,F3,Ab3,Db4}, 767/480 433/480,{1/2,Bb1}Bb1& _tempo(5/9){473/480,&Bb1 F2 Ab2 Bb2 Db3 F3 Ab3 Bb3 Eb4 Db4 Ab3 F3 Ab3 Bb3 Db4 E4 F4 Ab4 Bb4 Eb5 Db5 Bb4 Ab4 F4 Ab4 Bb4 Db5 Eb5 F5 Ab5 Bb5 Eb6 Db6 Bb5 Ab5 F5 Ab5 Bb5 Db6 E6 F6 Ab6 Bb6}7/480}} {_tempo(2) _vel(72){6,{1/8,Eb7}{47/8,Db7 Bb6 Ab6 E6 F6 Ab6 Bb6 Eb7 Db7 Bb6 Ab6 E6 F6 Ab6 Bb6 Eb7 Db7 Bb6 Ab6 E6 F6 Ab6 Bb6 Eb7 Db7 Bb6 Ab6 E6 F6 Ab6 Bb6 Eb7 Db7 Bb6 Ab6 E6 F6 Ab6 Bb6 Eb7 Db7 Bb6 Ab6 E6 F6 Ab6 Bb6}}} {_tempo(17/12) _vel(72){45/8,{1/2,C7 Db7 Eb7}{3,F7&}{3/4,&F7}{1/4,C7 Db7}_tempo(8/17){1/24,F7}_tempo(8/17){23/24,Db7 E7 C7 Eb7 Cb7 D7 Bb6 Db7 A6 C7 Ab6 B6 G6 Bb6 Gb6 A6 F6 Ab6 E6 G6 Eb6 Gb6 D6}_tempo(24/17) 1/8 _tempo(24/17),{1,-- B1}{5/2,B2 F3 Ab3 Db4 F4 Ab4 Db5 F5 Ab5 Db6}{1/2,F6}1/2 _tempo(8/17) 1 _tempo(24/17) 1/8}} {_tempo(7/20) _vel(72){19/8, 1/8 _tempo(4/3){1/32,F6}_tempo(4/3){29/32,Db6 E6 C6 Eb6 Cb6 D6 Bb5 Db6 A5 C6 Ab5 B5 G5 Bb5 Gb5 A5 F5 Ab5 E5 G5 Eb5 Gb5 D5 F5 Db5 E5 C5 Eb5 Cb5}_tempo(25/21){1/32,D5}_tempo(25/21){3/32,Bb4 Db5 A4}_tempo(20/21){1/32,C5}_tempo(20/21){3/32,Ab4 B4 G4}_tempo(5/7){1/32,Bb4}_tempo(5/7){3/32,Gb4 A4 F4}_tempo(10/21){1/32,Ab4}_tempo(10/21){3/32,E4 G4 D4}_tempo(5/21){1/32,F4}_tempo(5/21){1/32,Db4}_tempo(25/21) 3/4 _tempo(25/21),1/8 _tempo(4/3) 15/16 _tempo(25/21) 1/8 _tempo(20/21) 1/8 _tempo(5/7) 1/8 _tempo(10/21) 1/8 _tempo(5/21) 1/16 _tempo(25/21) 3/4}} {_tempo(7/15) _vel(72)} {_tempo(151/60) _vel(56){4,{1/4,C4}_tempo(165/151){7/4,Bb4 Bb4 A4 A4 G4 G4 G#4}2,_tempo(165/151) 1/2{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{2,C3 F4 --}{1/2,- C5},_tempo(140/151) -- _tempo(165/151) 1/2{1/2,A3,C4}{1,C3 -}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A4 C4}A4,{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,G4 C4}G4,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1/2,F4}{1/3,C4}{1/6,F4 G4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,E4 D4},{1/2,A3,C4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Ab3,B3}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{2,C4 Bb4 Bb4 A4 A4 G4 G4 G#4},{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A4 C4}A4,{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A4 C4}G4,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{2,C5 Bb5 Bb5 A5 A5 G5 G5 G#5},C5 C5,{1,- C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A5 C5}A5,- C5,{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A5 C5}G5,- C5,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{3/2,F5 C5 F5}{1/2,E5 D5},-{1/3,F5}{1/6,G5 F5}1/2,- Ab4,{1/2,A3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,B3,D4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{2,C5 Bb5 Bb5 A5 A5 G5 G5 G#5},C5 C5,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A5 C5}A5,- C5,{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A5 C5}G5,- C5,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,F5 1/2{1/2,- A5},A4 1,{1/2,F3,A3,D4}{1/2,F2,F3}{1/2,F3,F4}1/2}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{2,F6 E6 D6 C#6 D6 E6 F6 D6},{1/2,F5}3/2,{1/2,D2,D3}{1/2,A3 D4 F4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,E6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,E6}{1/4,D6},{3/2,E5 - E5}1/2,{1/2,A2}{1/2,A3 C#4 E4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,C#6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,C#6}{1/4,A5},{3/2,C#5 - C#5}1/2,{1/2,A2}{1/2,A3 C#4 E4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,D6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,A6}{1/4,A5},{3/2,D5 - A5}1/2,{1/2,D3}{1/2,A3 D4 F#4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{2,F6 E6 D6 C#6 D6 E6 F6 D6},{1/2,F5}3/2,{1/2,D3}{1/2,A3 D4 F4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,E6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,E6}{1/4,D6},{3/2,E5 - E5}1/2,{1/2,A2}{1/2,A3 C#4 E4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,C#6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,C#6}{1/4,A5},{3/2,C#5 - C#5}1/2,{1/2,A2}{1/2,A3 C#4 E4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{D5,D6}1/2{1/2,- A5},{1/2,D3}{1/2,A3 D4 F#4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{2,F7 E7 D7 C#7 D7 E7 F7 D7},{1/2,F6}3/2,{1/2,D4}{1/2,A4 D5 F5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,E7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,E7}{1/4,D7},{3/2,E6 - E6}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,A4 C#5 E5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,C#7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,C#7}{1/4,A6},{3/2,C#6 - C#6}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,A4 C#5 E5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,D7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,F#7}{1/4,A6},{3/2,D6 - F#6}1/2,{1/2,D4}{1/2,A4 D5 F#5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{2,F7 E7 D7 C#7 D7 E7 F7 D7},{1/2,F6}3/2,{1/2,D4}{1/2,A4 D5 F5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,E7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,E7}{1/4,D7},{3/2,E6 - E6}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,A4 C#5 E5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,C#7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,C#7}{1/4,A6},{3/2,C#6 - C#6}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,A4 C#5 E5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/4) _vel(56){3,{1/4,D6,D7}{3/4,Bb6 A6 Bb6}{2,A6},{1/2,D4}{1/2,A4 D5 F5}{3/2,A5}1/2}} {_tempo(7/15) _vel(56){41/15,{4/3,A6}_tempo(20/7){1/12,G#6}_tempo(20/7){1/4,A6 Bb6 D7}_tempo(15/28){1/60,F7}_tempo(15/28){21/20,E7 D7 C#7 D7 C#7 Bb6 A6 Bb6 A6 G#6 F6 A6 G#6 F6 E6 G#6 F6 E6 D6 F6 E6 D6 C#6 D6 C#6 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 G#5 F5 A5 G#5 F5 E5 G#5 F5 E5 D5 F5 E5 D5 C#5 D5 C#5 Bb4 A4 Bb4 A4 G#4 F4 A4 G#4 F4 E4 G#4 F4 E4 D4 F4 E4 D4 C4}, 1/15 19/15 _tempo(20/7) 1/3 _tempo(15/28) 16/15}} {_tempo(151/60) _vel(56){4,{1/4,C4}_tempo(165/151){7/4,Bb4 Bb4 A4 A4 G4 G4 G#4}2,_tempo(165/151) 1/2{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{2,C3 F4 --}{1/2,- C5},_tempo(140/151) -- _tempo(165/151) 1/2{1/2,A3,C4}{1,C3 -}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A4 C4}A4,{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,G4 C4}G4,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1/2,F4}{1/3,C4}{1/6,F4 G4}{1/2,F4}{1/2,E4 D4},{1/2,A3,C4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Ab3,B3}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{2,C4 Bb4 Bb4 A4 A4 G4 G4 G#4},{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A4 C4}A4,{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A4 C4}G4,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{2,C5 Bb5 Bb5 A5 A5 G5 G5 G#5},C5 C5,{1,- C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A5 C5}A5,- C5,{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A5 C5}G5,- C5,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{3/2,F5 C5 F5}{1/2,E5 D5},-{1/3,F5}{1/6,G5 F5}1/2,- Ab4,{1/2,A3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,B3,D4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{2,C5 Bb5 Bb5 A5 A5 G5 G5 G#5},C5 C5,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A5 C5}A5,- C5,{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,F4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(56){2,{1,A5 C5}G5,- C5,{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}{1/2,Bb3,E4}{1/2,C3}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,F5 1/2{1/2,- A5},A4 1,{1/2,F3,A3,D4}{1/2,F2,F3}{1/2,F3,F4}1/2}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{2,F6 E6 D6 C#6 D6 E6 F6 D6},{1/2,F5}3/2,{1/2,D2,D3}{1/2,A3 D4 F4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,E6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,E6}{1/4,D6},{3/2,E5 - E5}1/2,{1/2,A2}{1/2,A3 C#4 E4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,C#6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,C#6}{1/4,A5},{3/2,C#5 - C#5}1/2,{1/2,A2}{1/2,A3 C#4 E4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,D6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,A6}{1/4,A5},{3/2,D5 - A5}1/2,{1/2,D3}{1/2,A3 D4 F#4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{2,F6 E6 D6 C#6 D6 E6 F6 D6},{1/2,F5}3/2,{1/2,D3}{1/2,A3 D4 F4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,E6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,E6}{1/4,D6},{3/2,E5 - E5}1/2,{1/2,A2}{1/2,A3 C#4 E4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,C#6}{1/4,A5}{3/4,C#6}{1/4,A5},{3/2,C#5 - C#5}1/2,{1/2,A2}{1/2,A3 C#4 E4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{D5,D6}1/2{1/2,- A5},{1/2,D3}{1/2,A3 D4 F#4}{1,A4 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{2,F7 E7 D7 C#7 D7 E7 F7 D7},{1/2,F6}3/2,{1/2,D4}{1/2,A4 D5 F5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,E7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,E7}{1/4,D7},{3/2,E6 - E6}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,A4 C#5 E5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,C#7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,C#7}{1/4,A6},{3/2,C#6 - C#6}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,A4 C#5 E5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,D7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,F#7}{1/4,A6},{3/2,D6 - F#6}1/2,{1/2,D4}{1/2,A4 D5 F#5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{2,F7 E7 D7 C#7 D7 E7 F7 D7},{1/2,F6}3/2,{1/2,D4}{1/2,A4 D5 F5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,E7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,E7}{1/4,D7},{3/2,E6 - E6}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,A4 C#5 E5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/3) _vel(56){2,{3/4,C#7}{1/4,A6}{3/4,C#7}{1/4,A6},{3/2,C#6 - C#6}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,A4 C#5 E5}{1,A5 -}}} {_tempo(7/4) _vel(56){3,{1/4,D6,D7}{3/4,Bb6 A6 Bb6}{2,A6},{1/2,D4}{1/2,A4 D5 F5}{3/2,A5}1/2}} {_tempo(7/15) _vel(56){41/15,{4/3,A6}_tempo(20/7){1/12,G#6}_tempo(20/7){1/4,A6 Bb6 D7}_tempo(15/28){1/60,F7}_tempo(15/28){21/20,E7 D7 C#7 D7 C#7 Bb6 A6 Bb6 A6 G#6 F6 A6 G#6 F6 E6 G#6 F6 E6 D6 F6 E6 D6 C#6 D6 C#6 Bb5 A5 Bb5 A5 G#5 F5 A5 G#5 F5 E5 G#5 F5 E5 D5 F5 E5 D5 C#5 D5 C#5 Bb4 A4 Bb4 A4 G#4 F4 A4 G#4 F4 E4 G#4 F4 E4 D4 F4 E4 D4 C4}, 1/15 19/15 _tempo(20/7) 1/3 _tempo(15/28) 16/15}} {_tempo(169/60) _vel(56){2,{D6,D7}1/2{1/2,A5 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{_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/4,B6}{1/4,B5,D#6,F#6}{1/4,B6}{1/4,B5,D#6,F#6}{1/4,B6}{1/4,B5,D#6,F#6}{1/4,B6}{1/4,B5,D#6,F#6}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/8,B6}{1/8,D7}{3/4,C7 B6 C7}{3/4,A6}{1/4,A5,C#6,E6},{2,A2 E3 A3 - C#4 E4 A4 -}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{3/4,A6}{1/4,A5,C#6,E6}{1/4,A6}{1/4,A5,C#6,E6}{1/4,A6}{1/4,A5,C#6,E6},{2,C#5 E5 A5 - C#4 E4 A4 -}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/4,A6}{1/4,A5,C#6,E6}{1/4,A6}{1/4,A5,C#6,E6}{1/4,A6}{1/4,A5,C#6,E6}{1/4,A6}{1/4,A5,C#6,E6},{2,A2 E3 A3 - C#4 E4 A4 -}}} {_tempo(3/2) _vel(100){2,{1,A6 -}{19/480,G7}{19/20,F7 E7 D7 C7 B6 A6 G6 F6 E6 D6 C6 B5 A5 G5 F5 E5 D5 C5 B4 A4 G4 F4 E4 D4},1 -}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(45){2,{1/4,C4}{7/4,Bb4 Bb4 A4 A4 G4 G4 G#4},{1/2,C3}{1/2,G3,E4}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,G3,E4}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1,A4 E4}A4,{1/2,A2}{1/2,E3,C#4}{1/2,A2}{1/2,E3,C#4}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1,G4 D4}G4,{1/2,G2}{1/2,D3,B3}{1/2,G2}{1/2,D3,Bb3}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{3/2,F4 C4 F4}{1/2,E4 D4},{1/2,F2}{1/2,C3,A3}{1/2,B2}{1/2,F3,Ab3}}} 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Bb4,{1/2,C3}{1/2,B3,D4,G4}{1/2,Bb2}{1/2,Bb3,C4,E4}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{A4,F5}1/2 1/4{1/4,C5,C6},{1/2,F2}{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,A3,C4,F4}1/2}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C5,C6}{3/2,Bb5 Bb6 A5 A6 G#5 G#6},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/2,A5,A6}{1/2,C5,C6}{A5,A6},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/2,G5,G6}{1/2,C5,C6}{G5,G6},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F5,F6}{1/2,C5,C6}{Db5,Db6},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,Ab3,B3,F4}{1/2,Ab3,B3,F4}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C5,C6}{3/2,Bb4 Bb5 A4 A5 G#4 G#5},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}{1/2,E3,Bb3,C4,E4}}} {_tempo(11/4) _vel(100){2,{1/2,A5,A6}{1/2,C5,C6}{A5,A6},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(11/4) 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_vel(100){2,{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5}{1/4,C6,Gb6,C7}{1/4,Bb4,Gb5,Bb5}{1/4,C6,Gb6,C7}{1/4,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,A6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,A6,Eb7}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}{1/4,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}{1/4,Eb6,Gb6,Bb6,Eb7}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,Db5,Gb5,Bb5,Db6}1/2 -}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(45){2,- 1/2{1/2,- Db5}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{2,Bb5 Ab5 Gb5 F5 Gb5 Ab5 Bb5 Gb5},{1/2,Bb3,Bb4}{1/2,Db4,Gb4}{1/2,Bb3,Bb4}{1/2,Db4,Gb4}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Db5}{1/2,Ab5}{1/2,- Gb5},{1/2,C4,A4}{1/2,Db4,F4}{1/2,C4,A4}{1/2,Db4,F4}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F5}{1/2,- Db5}{1/2,Db6}{1/2,- F5},{1/2,C4,A4}{1/2,Db4,F4}{1/2,C4,A4}{1/2,Db4,F4}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,Gb5 1/2{1/2,- Db5},{1/2,Bb3,Bb4}{1/2,Db4,Gb4}{1/2,Bb3,Bb4}{1/2,Db4,Gb4}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{2,Bb5 Ab5 Gb5 F5 Gb5 Ab5 Gb5 F5},{1/2,Bb3,Bb4}{1/2,Db4,Gb4}{1/2,Bb3,Bb4}{1/2,Db4,Gb4}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,E5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,G5}{1/2,- F5},{1/2,Bb3,G4}{1/2,C4,E4}{1/2,Bb3,G4}{1/2,C4,E4}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,E5}{1/2,- C5}{1/2,C6}{1/2,- E5},{1/2,Bb3,G4}{1/2,C4,E4}{1/2,G3,E4}{1/2,Bb3,C4}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,F5 1/2{1/2,- C6},{1/2,F3,F4}{1/2,A3,C4}{1/2,Eb3,Eb4}{1/2,A3,C4},{2,F4 - Eb4 -}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{2,Bb6 Ab6 Gb6 F6 Gb6 Ab6 Bb6 Gb6},{1/2,Eb3,Eb4}{1/2,Gb3,Bb3}{1/2,D3,D4}{1/2,Gb3,Bb3},{1/2,Eb4}3/2}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F6}{1/2,- Db6}{1/2,Ab6}{1/2,- Gb6},{1/2,Db3,Db4}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,Db3,Db4}{1/2,F3,Ab3}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F6}{1/2,- Db6}{1/2,Db7}{1/2,- F6},{1/2,Db3,Db4}{1/2,F3,Ab3}{1/2,Cb3,Cb4}{1/2,F3,Ab3}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,Gb6 1/2{1/2,- Db4},{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Db3,Gb3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Db3,Gb3}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{2,Bb4 Ab4 Gb4 F4 Gb4 Ab4 Gb4 F4},{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Db3,Gb3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Db3,Gb3}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,E4}{1/2,- C4}{1/2,G4}{1/2,- F4},{1/2,Bb2,G3}{1/2,Db3,E3}{1/2,A2,G3}{1/2,C#3,E3},-{1,G3 -}}} {_tempo(41/15) _vel(100){2,{1/2,E4}{1/2,- Db4}{1/2,C5}{1/2,- E4},{1/2,G#2,G#3}{1/2,C#3,E3}{1/2,G2,Bb3}{1/2,C3,E3},{2,G#3 - Bb3 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(85){2,{1/2,F4}{1/2,A3,C4}{1/2,A4}{1/2,A3,C4},{1/2,F2}{1/2,C3,F3}{1/2,Eb2}{1/2,C3,Eb3}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F#4}{1/2,A3,C4}{1/2,D5}{1/2,D4,F#4,C5},{3/2,D2 Eb3 D3}{1/2,F#3,A3}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,B4}{1/2,D4,F4}{1/2,G5}{1/2,G4,B4,F5},{3/2,G2 Ab3 G3}{1/2,B3,D4}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F#5}{1/2,A4,C5}{1/2,D6}{1/2,D5,F#5,C6},{3/2,C3 Db4 C4}{1/2,E4,G4}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,A5}{1/2,A4,C5}{1/2,A5}{1/2,A4,C5,G5},{1/2,F3}{1/2,C4,F4}{1/2,Eb3}{1/2,C4,Eb4}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F#5}{1/2,A4,C5}{1/2,D6}{1/2,D5,F#5,C6},{3/2,D3 E4 D4}{1/2,F#4,A4}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(85){2,{1/2,B5}{1/2,D5,F5}{1/2,G6}{1/2,G5,B5,F6},{3/2,G3 Ab4 G4}{1/2,B4,D5}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,E6}{1/2,G5,Bb5}{1/2,C7}{1/2,C6,E6,Bb6},{3/2,C4 Db5 C5}{1/2,E5,G5}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,A6}{1/2,A5,D6}{1/2,A6}{1/2,A5,D6},{3/2,A6 - A6}1/2,{1/2,F4}{1/2,C5,F5}{1/2,D4}{1/2,D5,F#5},-{1,D4 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,Bb6}{1/2,Bb5,D6}{1/2,B6}{1/2,B5,E6},{3/2,Bb6 - B6}1/2,{1/2,G4}{1/2,D5,G5}{1/2,E4}{1/2,E5,G#5},{2,G4 - E4 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C7}{1/2,C6,E6}{1/2,C#7}{1/2,C#6,E6},{3/2,C7 - C#7}1/2,{1/2,A4}{1/2,E5,A5}{1/2,A4}{1/2,C#5,E5,A5},{2,A4 - A4 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,D7}{1/2,D6,F6}{1/2,E7}{1/2,D6,F6},{3/2,D7 - E7}1/2,{1/2,Bb3}{1/2,D4,F4,Bb4}{1/2,A3}{1/2,E4,A4},{2,Bb3 - A3 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F7}{1/2,F6,A6}{1/2,A6}{1/2,A5,D6},{3/2,F7 - A6}1/2,{1/2,F4}{1/2,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,D4}{1/2,F#4,A4,D5},{2,F4 - D4 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,Bb6}{1/2,Bb5,D6}{1/2,B6}{1/2,B5,E6},{3/2,Bb6 - B6}1/2,{1/2,E3}{1/2,G3,Bb3,E4}{1/2,E3}{1/2,G#3,B3,E4},{2,E3 - E3 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C7}{1/2,C6,E6}{1/2,C#7}{1/2,C#6,E6},{3/2,C7 - C#7}1/2,{1/2,A3}{1/2,C4,E4,A4}{1/2,A3}{1/2,C#4,E4,A4},{2,A3 - A3 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,D7}{1/2,D6,F6}{1/2,E7}{1/2,E6,G6},{3/2,D7 - E7}1/2,{1/2,D3}{1/2,F3,A3,D4}{1/2,D3}{1/2,G3,C4},{2,D3 - D3 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F7}{1/2,F6,A6}{1/2,A5,A6}{1/2,D6,F#6},{3/2,F7 - A6}1/2,{1/2,F3}{1/2,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,D3,D4}{1/2,F#3,A3},{2,F3 - D4 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,Bb5,Bb6}{1/2,D6,G6}{1/2,B5,B6}{1/2,E6,G#6},{3/2,Bb6 - B6}1/2,{1/2,G2,G3}{1/2,Bb2,D3}{1/2,E2,E3}{1/2,G#2,B2},{2,G3 - E3 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C6,C7}{1/2,E6,A6}{1/2,C#6,C#7}{1/2,E6,A6},{3/2,C7 - C#7}1/2,{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,C3,E3}{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,C#3,E3},{2,A3 - A3 -}}} {_tempo(187/60) _vel(100){2,{1/2,D6,D7}{1/2,F6,A6}{1/2,E6,E7}{1/2,G6,C7},{3/2,D7 - E7}1/2,{1/2,D2,D3}{1/2,F2,A2}{1/2,C2,G2,C3}1/2,{1/2,D3}3/2}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F6,A6,C7,F7}{1/2,F6,F7}{1/2,E6,E7}{1/2,D6,D7},{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,F2,F3}{1/2,E2,E3}{1/2,D2,D3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C6,C7}{1/4,D6,D7}{1/4,E6,E7}{1/2,F6,F7}{1/2,A6,A7},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/4,D2,D3}{1/4,E2,E3}{1/2,F2,F3}{1/2,A2,A3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,G6,G7}{1/2,B4,D5,G5,B5}{C5,E5,G5,C6},{1/2,G2,G3}{1/2,G3,B3,D4,G4}{C3,E3,G3,C4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,Bb5,Bb6}{1/2,Bb5,Bb6}{1/2,A5,A6}{1/2,G5,G6},{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,A2,A3}{1/2,G2,G3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C6,C7}{1/4,D6,D7}{1/4,E6,E7}{1/2,F6,F7}{1/2,A6,A7},{1/2,F2,F3}{1/4,G2,G3}{1/4,A2,A3}{1/2,Bb2,Bb3}{1/2,D3,D4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C6,C7}{1/2,E5,G5,C6,E6}{F5,A5,C6,F6},{1/2,C3,C4}{1/2,C4,E4,G4,C5}{F3,A3,C4,F4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F3,F4}{1/2,F3,F4}{1/2,E3,E4}{1/2,D3,D4},{1/2,F1,F2}{1/2,F1,F2}{1/2,E1,E2}{1/2,D1,D2}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C3,C4}{1/4,D3,D4}{1/4,E3,E4}{1/2,F3,F4}{1/2,A3,A4},{1/2,C1,C2}{1/4,D1,D2}{1/4,E1,E2}{1/2,F1,F2}{1/2,A1,A2}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,G3,G4}{1/2,B4,D5,G5,B5}{C5,E5,G5,C6},{1/2,G1,G2}{1/2,G3,B3,D4,G4}{C3,E3,G3,C4}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,Bb3,Bb4}{1/2,Bb3,Bb4}{1/2,A3,A4}{1/2,G3,G4},{1/2,Bb1,Bb2}{1/2,Bb1,Bb2}{1/2,A1,A2}{1/2,G1,G2}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C4,C5}{1/4,D4,D5}{1/4,E4,E5}{1/2,F4,F5}{1/2,A4,A5},{1/2,F1,F2}{1/4,G1,G2}{1/4,A1,A2}{1/2,Bb1,Bb2}{1/2,D2,D3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C4,C5}{1/2,E4,G4,C5,E5}{1/2,F4,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,G4,C5,E5,G5},{1/2,C2,C3}{1/2,C3,E3,G3,C4}{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,A4,C5,F5,A5}{1/2,C5,E5,G5,C6}{1/2,C5,F5,A5,C6}{1/2,E4,G4,C5,E5},{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C3,E3,G3,C4}{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F4,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,G4,C5,E5,G5}{1/2,A4,C5,F5,A5}{1/2,C5,E5,G5,C6},{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C3,E3,G3,C4}{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,C5,F5,A5,C6}{1/2,E5,G5,C6,E6}{1/2,F5,A5,C6,F6}{1/2,E5,G5,C6,E6},{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F5,A5,C6,F6}{1/2,E5,G5,C6,E6}{1/2,F5,A5,C6,F6}{1/2,E5,G5,C6,E6},{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}{1/2,C2,E2,G2,C3}}} {_tempo(61/30) _vel(100){11/4,{1/2,F5,A5,C6,F6}1/4{1/4,A4,C5,F5,A5}{1/2,A4,C5,F5,A5}1/4{1/2,C5,F5,A5,C6}1/2,{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}1/4{1/4,F3,A3,C4,F4}{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}1/2{1/4,C3,F3,A3,C4}1/2}} {_tempo(131/60) _vel(100){5/2, 1/2{1/2,C5,F5,A5,C6}1/4{1/4,F4,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,F4,A4,C5,F5}1/4{1/4,A4,C5,F5,A5}, 1/2{1/2,C3,F3,A3,C4}1/4{1/4,A2,C3,F3,A3}{1/2,A2,C3,F3,A3}1/4{1/4,F2,A2,C3,F3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,A4,C5,F5,A5}1/4{1/4,F4,A4,C5,F5}{1/2,F4,A4,C5,F5}1/4{1/4,A4,C5,F5,A5},{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}1/4{1/4,A2,C3,F3,A3}{1/2,A2,C3,F3,A3}1/4{1/4,F2,A2,C3,F3}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,A4,C5,F5,A5}1/4{1/4,C5,F5,A5,C6}{1/2,C5,F5,A5,C6}1/4{1/4,F5,A5,C6,F6},{1/2,F2,A2,C3,F3}1/4{1/4,C2,F2,A2,C3}{1/2,C2,F2,A2,C3}1/4{1/4,F1,A1,C2,F2}}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F5,A5,C6,F6}1/2 -,{1/2,F1,A1,C2,F2}1/2 -}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,A4,C5,F5,A5}1/2 -,{1/2,C3,F3,A3,C4}1/2 -}} {_tempo(12/5) _vel(100){2,{1/2,F3,A3,C4,F4}1/2 -,{1/2,F1,A1,C2,F2}1/2 -}}

Take-away

The inter­pre­ta­tion of com­plex musi­cal works pack­aged in digi­tised musi­cal scores high­lights impor­tant fea­tures of the Bol Processor model:

  1. Every musi­cal work eli­gi­ble for digi­ti­sa­tion can be accu­rate­ly described as a sin­gle poly­met­ric expres­sion;
  2. Limits of this mod­el­ling are mere­ly “phys­i­cal”: mem­o­ry size and com­pu­ta­tion time;
  3. Time accu­ra­cy is not affect­ed by the size of data.

Return to humanity

Examples will hope­ful­ly con­vince read­ers that the Bol Processor for­mat is able to emu­late scores in com­mon Western music nota­tion, and even fix some irreg­u­lar­i­ties in their tim­ings… Let us admit a long way from its ini­tial ded­i­ca­tion to the beau­ti­ful poet­ry cre­at­ed by drum play­ers in India!

These are indeed inter­pre­ta­tions of musi­cal scores. In order to remem­ber the addi­tion­al val­ue cre­at­ed by human artists play­ing real instru­ments, we may end up lis­ten­ing to the same Beethoven’s Fugue played by Alban Berg Quartett:

Beethoven’s Fugue in B flat major (opus 133). Source: https://youtu.be/13ygvpIg-S0

A multicultural model of consonance

A frame­work for tun­ing just-intonation scales via two series of fifths

For more than twen­ty cen­turies, musi­cians, instru­ment mak­ers and musi­col­o­gists fig­ured out scale mod­els and tun­ing pro­ce­dures for the cre­ation of music embody­ing the con­cept of “con­so­nance”. There was a shared notion of the octave and the major fifth (inter­val “C” to “G”) being the build­ing blocks of these mod­els, and the har­mon­ic major third (inter­val “C” to “E”) late­ly played a sig­nif­i­cant role in European baroque and clas­si­cal music.

Computer-controlled elec­tron­ic instru­ments open new avenues for the imple­men­ta­tion of micro­tonal­i­ty includ­ing just-intonation frame­works divid­ing the octave in more than 12 grades (https://bolprocessor.org/microtonality/). Throughout cen­turies, Indian art music claimed its adher­ence to a divi­sion of 22 inter­vals (the ṣruti-swara sys­tem) the­o­rized in Nāṭyaśāstra, a Sanskrit trea­tise dat­ing back between 400 BCE to 200 CE. Since con­so­nance (saṃvādī) is the basis of both ancient Indian and European tonal sys­tems, we felt the urge for a the­o­ret­i­cal frame­work encom­pass­ing all models.

Unfortunately, the top­ic of “just into­na­tion” is exposed in an alto­geth­er con­fus­ing and reduc­tive man­ner (read Wikipedia) due to musi­col­o­gists’ focus on inte­ger ratios aimed at reflect­ing the dis­tri­b­u­tion of high­er par­tials in peri­od­i­cal sounds. While these spec­u­la­tive mod­els of into­na­tion may respond to beliefs in the mys­ti­cal prop­er­ties of nat­ur­al num­bers — as claimed by Pythagoreanists — they were rarely checked against non-directed musi­cal prac­tice. Instrument tuners most­ly rely on their own audi­to­ry per­cep­tion of inter­vals rather than resort­ing to num­bers, despite the avail­abil­i­ty of “elec­tron­ic tuners”…

Interestingly, the ancient Indian the­o­ry of nat­ur­al scales does not rely on arith­metics. This should be sur­pris­ing giv­en that in Vedic times mathematicians/philosophers had laid out the foun­da­tions of cal­cu­lus and infin­i­tes­i­mals which much lat­er were export­ed from Kerala to Europe and borrowed/appropriated by European schol­ars — read C.K. Raju’s Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: the nature of math­e­mat­i­cal proof and the trans­mis­sion of the cal­cu­lus from India to Europe in the 16th c. CE. This epis­te­mo­log­i­cal para­dox was an incen­tive to decrypt the mod­el depict­ed by the author(s) of Nāṭyaśāstra via a thought exper­i­ment: the two-vina exper­i­ment (https://bolprocessor.org/two-vina-experiment).

Earlier inter­pre­ta­tions of this mod­el, mim­ic­k­ing the Western habit of deal­ing with inter­vals as fre­quen­cy ratios, failed to explain the inter­val­ic struc­ture of ragas in Hindustani clas­si­cal music. In fact, the implic­it mod­el of Nāṭyaśāstra is a “flex­i­ble” one because the size of the major third (or equiv­a­lent­ly the pramāņa ṣru­ti) is not stat­ed in advance. Read Raga into­na­tion (https://bolprocessor.org/raga-intonation) and lis­ten to exam­ples to grasp the artic­u­la­tion between the the­o­ry and prac­tice of into­na­tion in this context.

In Europe, the har­mon­ic major third was final­ly accept­ed as a “celes­tial inter­val” after the Council of Trent (1545-1563) putting an end to the ban­ish­ment of poly­phon­ic singing in reli­gious gath­er­ings. Along with the devel­op­ment of fixed-pitch key­board instru­ments, this gave way to the elab­o­ra­tion of the­o­ret­i­cal mod­els and tun­ing pro­ce­dures attempt­ing to include this inter­val in “pure into­na­tion”. In the­o­ry, this is not fea­si­ble on a chro­mat­ic (12-grade scale) but it can be fig­ured out and applied to Western har­mo­ny if more grades (29 to 41) are per­mit­ted. However, choos­ing enhar­mon­ic posi­tions suit­able for a har­mon­ic con­text remains an uncer­tain venture.

Once again, the Indian mod­el came to the res­cue because it can be extend­ed to pro­duce a con­sis­tent series of twelve “opti­mal­ly con­so­nant” chro­mat­ic scales in com­pli­ance with chord inter­vals in Western har­mo­ny. Each scale con­tains 12 grades, which is more than the notes of chords it is applic­a­ble for. Sound exam­ples are pro­vid­ed to illus­trate this process (https://bolprocessor.org/just-intonation-framework/).

Tuning mechan­i­cal key­board instru­ments (church organ, harp­si­chord, pianoforte) for 12-grade scales made it nec­es­sary to dis­trib­ute unwant­ed dis­so­nance (the syn­ton­ic com­ma) in an accept­able man­ner over series of fifths and fourths. Many tem­pered tun­ing pro­ce­dures were designed, dur­ing the 16th to 19th cen­turies, with empha­sis on either “per­fect fifths” or “pure major thirds”, in response to the con­straints of spe­cif­ic musi­cal repertoires.

These tech­niques have been doc­u­ment­ed in detail by organ play­er and instru­ment design­er Pierre-Yves Asselin, along with meth­ods for achiev­ing the tun­ing on a mechan­i­cal instru­ment such as the harp­si­chord. His book Musique et tem­péra­ment (soon avail­able in English) was a guide­line for imple­ment­ing a sim­i­lar approach in the Bol Processor (https://bolprocessor.org/microtonality/). This frame­work will make it pos­si­ble to lis­ten to baroque and clas­si­cal works, using Csound instru­ments, with the very tun­ings their com­posers had been favor­ing — accord­ing to his­tor­i­cal sources.